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Hawaiian Island Geology. Over 100 volcanoes in a volcanic island arc system. Meiji (3000 m deep). Big Island. Hawaiian Islands. Niihau. Kauai. Oahu. Molokai. Lanai. Maui. Hawaii. Bathymetric Profile of Hawaiian Emperor Chain.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Over 100

volcanoes in a volcanic island arc system

Meiji

(3000 m deep)

Big Island

slide3

Hawaiian Islands

Niihau

Kauai

Oahu

Molokai

Lanai

Maui

Hawaii

slide5

J. Tuzo Wilson (1963), a Canadian geophysicist ,came up the "hotspot" theory.

volcanoes of the Hawaiian chain should get progressively older and become more eroded the farther they travel beyond the hotspot.

Pacific Plate

Kauai

(oldest)

Oahu

Maui

Hawaii

(youngest)

slide7

Movement of Hawaiian Islands

Moves in a northwesterly direction

Much of the Hawaiian island arc is

underwater and extends toward Midway

slide8

WE’VE GOT HOT SPOTS ALL OVER THE PLACE

Other examples of hot spots include:

Cape Verde (off the coast of Senegal), Galapagos Islands (off the coast of Equator), Society Islands (French Polynesia), Tristan da Cunha (southern Atlantic), Yellowstone, Ethiopia Plateau, Lord How (near Sydney), Iceland, and many more.

slide9

Movement away from hotspot

Older islands erode and subside

slide10

Aging islands and coral:

  • Drilling and removing core sample
  • C14 dating
slide13

Darwin’s Theory of Coral Atoll Formation: Subsidence Theory

Fringing Reef- boarders coastline closely

Island subsides

Barrier Reef- separated from

land by a lagoon

Atoll- coral ring with central lagoon

lagoon is a shallow area with a sandy floor, patch reefs, and patches of seagrass

slide15

Fringing Reef

Shoreline

Reef Flat

Reef Front

slide18

Kaneohe Bay

Barrier Reef

Patch Reef

Fringing Reef

reef flat of a barrier reef
Reef Flat of a barrier reef

Lagoon

Reef Flat of a Barrier Reef

Coral Island

(Cay or Motu)

Reef Flat

Reef Front

Open Ocean

slide22

Midway Atoll

Kure Atoll (28° 25' N - 178° 20' W)

Pearl & Hermes Atoll