Early impact of European Contact 1778 James Cook Capitalism : Sandlewood Trade Christianity: Calvinist Missionaries Democracy Predatory Individualism 1
1842 Tyler Doctrine • Gerit P. Judd • King Kamaehamaeha III • Great Mahele 1848 • 1880 75% of Agricultural lands foreign owned 2
Rise of the Sugar Plantations • push for annexation • tariff issues • James McBride • 1866 USS Lackawanna • 1867 William Seward • 1872 William Lunalilo, Charles Bishop, Prince Lot 3
1875 Reciprocity Treaty • 1875 17 million pounds of sugar exported • 1883 115 million pounds of sugar exported • 1876 30/32 plantations American owned 4
Labor and Immigration • 1877-1890 55,000 • 30% population increase • Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Portuguese, Filipino, Spanish, Puerto Rican • Hawaii multi-ethnic and multi-cultural community 5
Political issues • 1877 Henry Pierce • 1887 Hawaiian League & Honolulu Rifles • “Bayonet Constitution: removed monarchy, strong legislative branch, $600-3000 worth of property to vote or hold office • political takeover by missionary families, plantation owners, bankers 6
Liliuokalani • against annexation and reciprocity treaty • new constitution • Committee of Safety • Sanford Dole • James Blounts investigation • Cleveland, McKinley 7
Asian population in Hawaii • 1850-1920 300,000 immigrate to Hawaii • labor force for sugar and pineapple plantations • 1920 62% of population Asian born • Agricultural background
Between 1908 and 1924 nearly 20,000 Japanese, Okinawan and Korean women arrived in Hawaii as "picture brides" while thousands of others also migrated to the U.S. Mainland. • Photographs exchanged across the Pacific Ocean expanded the tradition of arranged marriages for Japanese, Okinawan and Korean women to laborers in Hawaii. • Courageous young women who arrived in Hawaii between 1908 and 1924 built the foundation for the family community that replaced the more predominantly bachelor communities of the Japanese, Okinawan and Korean laborers. • Because matchmakers feared that women would not come if they told the whole truth, the often exaggerated o held back on the facts.
A 19 year old Korean woman who found out her husband was 45 remembered: • “I saw him at the Immigration Station. He was really old-looking. He had sent a picture when he was 25 years old! My heart stopped. My cousin in Honolulu had arranged the marriage and I was very angry at her. I cried for 8 days in my room. If I don’t get married I have to go back. My parents would be very shamed. So I married him.” • Immediately upon arrival in Hawaii, women contributed both paid and unpaid labor to their families and communities. Their work in the cane fields and in their homes ensured the economic survival of their families and the development of a sustained family community on Hawaii's sugar plantations.
Asian Women and Plantation Labor • 1894 7 % of labor force • 1920 14 % of labor force 80 % Japanese • Katsu Okawa, Yukino Takaki cane loaders
Immigrants came to Hawaii to earn money and the wives of sugar workers, including Japanese picture brides, constituted a key financial resource. • While young men married to establish households and obtain the benefits of marriage--home cooked meals, sexual relations and a family --they also expected, and needed, their young brides to contribute to the family coffers.
In 1910, one-third of all employed Japanese women worked in the sugar fields. • Assignment to a "women's field gang" immediately upon arrival was typical. • Women on the sugar plantations earned 50¢ for a 10-hour work day and were expected to work six days a week. • A full month's pay of $13 was based on 26 days of work and equalled 66% of Japanese men's wages. • Women typically weeded the fields (hoe hana), irrigated (hanawai), stripped the cane of dry leaves (holehole) or cut seed cane (pula pula). However when women worked with their husbands in contract (konpan) gangs, they did everything, including the heavy work of cutting, carrying and loading cane.
The canefields were also a social space. • With families to care for, women had little free time and fieldwork offered daily contact with other women. • The companionship of others is what women most often remember about their field work days. • As picture brides, women often lacked support. • They created new networks of friends from their countries to replace the assistance of friends and female relatives back home.
Pregnancy necessitated a decision between fieldwork and other income-earning activities. • While a number of "progressive" plantations offered childcare, not everyone had access or could afford the fees. • Women used a number of childcare strategies including tying their infants to their backs or leaving their younger children in the care of an older sibling or a neighbor • Many left the canefields and entered domestic service; laundry, meals or sewing clothing for the "bachelor" men on the plantations. For many women, this was the only way to combine family responsibilities with income earning. Both Filipinas and Japanese women earned money providing domestic services--laundry, clothing and meals--to single men. The money women earned, from fieldwork, laundry or a combination of both, was essential for their families' survival.
Labor conditions on the plantations • Regulations • Fines • Brass tokens • Punishments • Kim Hyung-Soon
Labor issues • 1904 Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association resolution • Multi-tiered wage system; workers did the same jobs with different wages. • In 1910, Japanese sugar cane cutters earned ninety-nine cents per day, while Filipinos earned just sixty-nine cents. Furthermore, Japanese carpenters earned $1.28 per day, and whites earned $4.36 a day. • 1898 Sprecklesville Plantation on Maui • 1899 Kahuku Plantation • Script • Labor responses
Contract & Labor Issues • 1892 contracts ended for large number of laborers • 1900 Territorial status brings legal changes Annexation of Hawaii as a Territory of the U.S. abolished contract labor and workers were free to leave plantations . • This change in the employer/employee relationship encouraged responsible plantations begin to consider workers' needs to entice them to stay on their plantations.
1907 40,000 leave for California • The 1907 Gentlemen's Agreement Roosevelt Executive Order restricted the immigration of Japanese male laborers who responded by sending for wives and family. Angered workers who felt trapped. • Blood Unionism
After 1900 various plantations found married men to be more dependable. With families to feed, workers needed larger paychecks. Not surprisingly, increased wages were the primary demands of both the 1909 and 1920 sugar strikes. • 1909 Attack on multi-tier wage system • Constituting 70% of the workforce, the Japanese organized the 1909 strike amongst themselves but were broken by the united efforts of the Hawaii Sugar Planters Association (HSPA). • However, three months after the strike, HSPA raised wages and abolished wage differentials based on race (although wages for women were usually uniform). • Both the restrictions on Japanese immigration and the solidarity of the Japanese strikers encouraged the HSPA to diversify its workforce and begin recruiting in the Philippines.
1920 Japanese Federation of Labor and Filipino of Labor coalition participated in a coordinated, 6-month long strike on Oahu (with workers on the neighbor islands sending funds). • The existence of two separate "ethnic unions," the Japanese Federation of Labor and the Filipino Labor Union, did not facilitate a unified walk-out. • The strength of the workers and the preparation of the Federation of Japanese Labor is manifest in the 12,000 workers the plantations had to evict and the $11.5 million estimated loss by the plantations. • As 20% of the Japanese sugar workforce, Japanese women participated in the 1920 sugar strike in large numbers. The Japanese Federation of Labor initially included paid maternity leave ( 2 weeks prior & 6 weeks post-partum) as a strike demand. The key issue in the 1920 strike, the demand for higher wages, was based on the need to provide for workers' families.
Japanese women working in the sugar fields decreases rapidly after 1920. • Young Japanese American daughters work in domestic service and pineapple canneries. • Young women only return to the plantations after 1932 when the Depression forces many second generation men and women (nisei), back to the plantations for stable but low-waged work. • However, an occupational shift occurred as these young women did not work in the fields but in plantation offices and stores.
Sugar workers did not organize a multiethnic, unified labor union until 1946 under the auspices of the International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union (ILWU).
Culture & Community • Pyramid housing system • segregated housing • Dance Halls • Baseball • Religion • Language was intertwined between cultures. Pidgin English developed, which was a language that included English, Hawaiian, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Portuguese and Spanish words.
The first Chinese immigrant group came on January 3, 1852. • About 175 field hands and 20 house workers came to Hawaii. • Some Chinese went into their own farming and became very important vegetable growers; Chinese peas, long beans, water chestnuts, bean sprouts, mustard cabbage and bitter melon. • Since the Chinese were from South China, their climate was similar to Hawaii. They were able to bring a variety of popular plants to the islands; lychee, bamboo, beautiful chrysanthemums, and pomelo also known as jabong, longun and the delicious apple banana. • It was the Chinese who introduced a system of rice cultivation called "Fun-Kung," which is still used today. • The Chinese immigrants also found ways to keep their traditions alive in the new country. On their specific New Year's Day, Chinese workers refrained from working in order to celebrate the coming of the new year. They decorated their cottages with the traditional festival decorations, and continued to carry out normal rituals.
In 1868, the first Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii. • Then between 1886 and 1924, nearly 180,000 immigrants came to Hawaii. • There are a variety of foods enjoyed by the local people that the Japanese brought to Hawaii. These foods include teriyaki meat, shrimp tempura, sushi, and musubi. Other foods such as saimin, hekka, and shave ice also had their beginnings in Japan and have turned to be very popular today. "Saimin," for example, is Japanese soup with cooked Chinese noodles in it. "Shave ice" is American flavored-syrups such as orange, lime and strawberry poured over shavings of ice. In Japan, it is a summer treat called "koori," which is shaved ice with sugar or milk poured over it. "Hekka" is a chicken or beef dish cooked with vegetable in soy sauce. It is a local version of our Sukiyaki dish • Japanese immigrant workers decorated their cottages and camps with bonsai plants and built their own Japanese baths or furos. The Japanese kept their old lifestyles with ceremonies, integrating them into the culture of Hawaii. • One major ceremony is in midsummer when the immigrants would celebrate the spirits of the dead in what is called the obon festival.
In 1906, the first 15 Filipino male immigrants arrived in Hawaii. • Filipinos are known for their specialty food; Some of their foods include, "pancit" which is a noodle dish, "kangkanen" which is a sweet dessert, chicken "adobo" which is a chicken dish cooked in vinegar and "lumpia" which is similar to an egg roll.