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Instructional Design. Dr. Lam TECM 5180. Agenda. Intro to ID Analysis Phase Design Phase, maybe. Why instructional design is important?. Bad instruction is easy, good instruction is difficult and time-consuming Individual implications Organizational implications Bottom-line Morale

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instructional design

Instructional Design

Dr. Lam

TECM 5180

  • Intro to ID
  • Analysis Phase
  • Design Phase, maybe
why instructional design is important
Why instructional design is important?
  • Bad instruction is easy, good instruction is difficult and time-consuming
  • Individual implications
  • Organizational implications
    • Bottom-line
    • Morale
    • Job satisfaction
    • Productivity
what is id
What is ID?
  • Systematic method (process) of designing, developing, and delivering instruction
  • Requires knowledge of science and “art”
  • ADDIE is the most common ID process
    • Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation
important id terms
Important ID Terms
  • Instructor – someone who delivers content
  • Facilitator – someone who guides participants, but doesn’t always deliver content
  • SME – subject-matter expert
  • Designer - you
analysis phase
Analysis Phase
  • Purpose: to determine 1) whether training is necessary and 2) the scope of the training course if it is necessary.
  • How: We determine these things by collecting and analyzing data from a variety of sources (e.g., focus groups, upper management, surveys, interviews, etc.)
  • Output/Deliverables: Could be any number of things depending on organization, but should include at the very least a needs analysis.
  • Other notes: The text (chapter 2) seems to separate pre-ID analysis from the actual analysis phase. People argue about this, but for our purposes both chapters 2 and 3 can be considered analysis.
  • We do this first, but also realize that the process is iterative. If you’re doing analysis “right”, other phases are much easier.
design phase
Design Phase
  • Purpose: to outline the course content and prepare for the development phase. You can think of it like blueprints for a house.
  • How: draft instructional objectives, specific instructional strategies, select media, and items for measuring performance.
  • Output/Deliverables: Design document that includes instructional objectives, learning activities, media, and assessments.
  • Other notes: Design documents can look different depending on the organization. We’ll take a look at some examples, but generally they look like a “matrix” or spreadsheet with all of the relevant information for each learning objective.
  • The more detailed you are in the design phase, the easier development will be.
development phase
Development Phase
  • Purpose: to create the “end product” of the training module. This includes the “end product” for the user and the instructor (if used).
  • How: develop materials using appropriate software
  • Output/Deliverables: lesson plans for facilitators/instructors; print and/or electronic guides for participants; presentation slides for classroom training.
  • Other notes: development requires you to think about every possible piece of content an instructor and a participant will interact with. E.g., print and electronic materials may seem obvious, but what about something like a classroom discussion or role playing activity?
implementation phase
Implementation Phase
  • Purpose: To deliver the content to the end user
  • How: Depends on the content delivery medium, but generally involves planning, scheduling, and adapting for contingencies.
  • Output/Deliverables: Pilot or beta test of the program.
  • Other notes: Implementation will vary widely depending on the type of training, delivery method, and organization. It is, however, much more DIFFICULT than it sounds.
evaluation phase
Evaluation Phase
  • Purpose: To determine the “effectiveness” of the training
  • How: Measure all levels of “effectiveness”, which include reaction, skill and knowledge mastery, job transfer, and ROI.
  • Output/Deliverables: usability reports, recommendation report.
  • Other notes: There is a distinct difference between summative and formative evaluation

The purpose of pre-instructional design analysis (which is what Piskurich calls it) is to determine whether ID will actually solve a problem. There are several ways to determine this:

  • Needs Assessment
  • Performance Assessment
  • Training Needs Assessment
  • Cost-benefit analysis
needs assessment
Needs Assessment
  • What is the point?
    • To answer the basic question, do we (our organization) actually need training?
  • Several methods to do this, but all involve data
  • Range from simple, informal interviews to full-blown surveys
  • Key is to ask the “right” questions
some common needs assessment questions
Some common needs assessment questions
  • Where is there a problem? (organizational needs assessment)
  • Why is it a problem? (performance analysis, training needs analysis)
  • Will training solve the problem? (cost-benefit analysis)
let s look at an example shall we
Let’s look at an example, shall we?

Go to the documents page of the course website and download each of the sample analyses reports.

After reading (skimming through longer ones) the report, in groups of two answering the following:

  • What is the purpose of the report? Why would someone write this thing?
  • What is being assessed or evaluated? (i.e., is it organizational needs? Performance and performance gaps? Training needs? Cost-benefit? A mixture of these?)
  • Who is it written for?
  • What’s in it? What are the major sections? What kind of information is found in each section?