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Instructional Design. Dianne Kelly Swinburne University of Technology School of Engineering Technology and Trades. What is instructional design. Deliberate process of design to facilitate learning based on Learner needs End goal of instruction Analysis of content Pedagogical theory.

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Instructional design

Instructional Design

Dianne Kelly

Swinburne University of Technology

School of Engineering Technology and Trades

What is instructional design
What is instructional design

  • Deliberate process of design to facilitate learning based on

    • Learner needs

    • End goal of instruction

    • Analysis of content

    • Pedagogical theory

What do teachers need to consider


What do teachers need to consider?

Student centred



  • Contestable funding

Fast tracked


Industry focussed



Strategic directions

Resource development

Increasing returns

Time fraction


And the students
And the students….

Systems approach model
Systems approach model

  • Walter Dick and Lou Carey in 1978 published “The Systematic design of Instruction”

    • Identify instructional goal

    • Conduct instructional analysis

    • Analyse learners and contexts

    • Write performance objectives

    • Develop assessment instruments

    • Develop instructional strategy

    • Develop and select instructional materials

    • Design and conduct formative evaluation of instruction

    • Revise instruction

    • Design and conduct summitive evaluation.

Design structure
Design structure

  • Robert Gagne worked with pilot training in WWII and then in designing computer training.

  • He devised the Nine events of Learning to describe the essential stages of instruction.

Nine events of instruction

1 – Gain attention

2 – Inform Learner of Objective

3 – recall prior knowledge

4- present material

5 – provide guided learning

6 – elicit performance

7 – provide feedback

8 – assess performance

9 enhance retention and transfer

Nine Events of Instruction

Designing opportunities
Designing opportunities

  • Merrill argues that task based learning provides learning opportunities.

  • Tasks need to gradually increase learner independence

  • Opportunities need to occur for learners to integrate new learning at higher levels, in new and personal ways.


  • Related to existing chunks

  • Increasing level of difficulty

  • Supported by feedback

  • Reinforced by practice to prepare for the next level


  • Structure learning material to build on previous knowledge

  • Incorporate learning activities to reinforce learning

  • Vary methods to maintain interest

  • Build confidence with successes along the way

  • Increase the level of independence and challenge

Bloom s taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy

  • In 1956 Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist at the University of Chicago, proposed his Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

  • Bloom’s Taxonomy refers to three domains:

    • Affective

    • Psychomotor

    • cognitive

There are 6 levels in the cognitive domain







There are 6 levels in the cognitive domain

Verbs activity
Verbs Activity

  • Each table will have

    • a list of the levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy

    • A bundle of Verbs

  • Match the verbs with the corresponding level on the hierarchy

  • Use the verbs in designing tasks for each level


  • Cognitive Load Theory relates to how we receive information into memory for processing.

  • The Magic Seven G. A. Miller

    • Working memory capacity of 7 (+ or – 2)

    • Chunking extends this. Consider remembering 14105968

    • How about 14 10 59 68 … easier?

Extraneous cognitive load
Extraneous cognitive load

  • Removing extraneous cognitive load can assist in memory retention and scaffolding.

  • Imagine learning a new skill in a second language.

  • How much extra load is there?

What is this
What is this

  • An object with four sides of equal length and four angles at exactly 90 degrees with the borders accentuated in deeper hues

  • Or