Instructional Design ETEC 544 Winter 2004 Brian Newberry
Instructional DesignInstructional Design is a systematic process for the creation of educational resources. It is often viewed as a "problem solving" process.
For the purpose of this class we will view instructional design as having these basic, separate but connected processes: • Analyzing • Designing • Developing • Implementing • Evaluating
Instructional Design Theory shouldn't be confused with Learning Theory. Instructional design is the link between Learning Theory and the practice of creating instructional resources. A learning theory describes how learning occurs, an Instructional Design Theory describes how to cause learning to occur.
GagneGagne's approach to instructional design identifies five types of learning:verbal informationintellectual skillscognitive strategiesmotor skillsattitudesand nine instructional events:gaining attention informing learners of the objective stimulating recall of prior learning presenting the stimulus providing learning guidance eliciting performance providing feedbackassessing performance enhancing retention and transfer Gagné, R. M. (1974). Essentials of learning for instruction. (2nd ed.). Hinsdale, IL: The Dryden Press.Gagné, R. M. (1977). The conditions of learning. (4nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc.
Dick and Carey (uses Gange's learning outcomes)http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/m/r/mrs331/dickcarey.gifDick and Carey developed a model for instructional development with five steps:analysisdesigndevelopmentimplementationevaluation
Seels and Glasgowhttp://www.personal.psu.edu/users/m/r/mrs331/seelsglasgownovice.gifMuch like other instructional design processes (ADDIE), but includes project management as an overarching concern and has some of the processes occurring simultaneously.AnalysisDesignDevelopmentImplementationEvaluation
Other Approaches: Rapid Prototyping - Tripp & Bichelmeyer etc. http://it.coe.uga.edu/studio/seminars/rpmodel.html
Studying Instructional Design VS. Doing Instructional Design