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Instructional Design. Arif Altun. Why ID?. Designing effective instructional materials is one way of improving the quality of educational opportunities.

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why id
Why ID?
  • Designing effective instructional materials is one way of improving the quality of educational opportunities.
  • The common concern of instructional designers is the facilitation of successful learning experiences from which learners can demonstrate their newly acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes.

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

what is an isd
What is an ISD ?
  • Instructional design refers to the systematic process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans or specifications for instructional materials or activities.

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

who is an instructional designer
Who is an instructional designer ?
  • Instructional designers use established learning theories and principles as problem solving procedures (models) to guide them in making decisions about their designs. (Smith and Ragan, 1999)

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

metaphors used for isd
Metaphors used for ISD
  • Instructional design can be regarded

as both a science and an art:

a science because it is rooted in learning theories which in turn draw their principles from psychology, sociology, philosophy and education; and,

an art because the designing of instructional materials is a highly creative process.

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

intitial questions sought answers
Intitial Questions sought answers
  • Goals: What are the goals of the instruction? (Where are we going?)
  • Instructional strategy: What is the instructional strategy and the instructional medium? (How will we get there?)
  • Evaluation: How will we evaluate and revise the instructional materials for future improvement? (How will we know when we have arrived?)

(Smith and Ragan, 1999)

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

common features of id models
Common Features of ID Models
  • Improving learning and instruction by following a systematic approach
  • Improving management of instructional design and development procedures by monitoring and controlling the functions of the systematic approach

• Improving evaluation processes (including learner performance)

  • Testing or building learning or instructional theory by means of theory-based design within a systematic instructional model

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

basic elements of id
Basic Elements of ID
  • Determining the needs of the learners and examining the learning context and environment
  • Determining the outcomes of the learning program or course and formulating the learning objectives
  • Developing appropriate and meaningful assessment criteria and procedures
  • Establishing the most effective approach(es) to delivering the instruction

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

basic elements of id9
Basic Elements of ID

5. Testing and evaluating the effectiveness

of the instructional system (both the

instruction itself and the performance of

the learner)

  • Implementing, adjusting and maintaining

the instructional system

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

quality assurance model in isd
Quality Assurance Model in ISD

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

slide11
UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey
analysis
Analysis
  • Collect all relevant information and then try to make sense of a variety of deficiencies, contradictions, inconsistencies and ambiguities
  • Report on
    • Goals
    • Target Population
    • Type of Training
    • Alternatives

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

goals
Goals
  • What instructional goal is driving this training?
  • What is the skill gap?
  • What competencies (knowledge, skills, or attitudes) will this program deliver?
  • What factor or evaluation will be used to measure the level of goal achievement?

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

target population
Target Population
  • Who will be trained?
  • What is the estimated class size?
  • How many students in each class will there be and how long will this training last?
  • What are the knowledge and skill prerequisites, if any?

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

type of training
Type of Training
  • What types of media do we need?
  • What instruments do we need to deliver this training?

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

alternatives
Alternatives
  • What will happen if we do not deliver the training?
  • What are the restrictions or limitations for delivering this program?
  • What other methods may be used to reach the goal (include limitations and advantages)?

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

design instructional strategy
Design: Instructional Strategy
  • In a design process, instructional strategies determine the approach an instructor may take to achieve learning objectives.
    • Organizational Strategies
    • Delivery Strategies
    • Management Strategies
    • Questioning Strategies
questioning strategies
Questioning strategies
  • Application Questions
  • Analytical Questions
  • Synthesis Questions
  • Interpretive Questions
  • Evaluative Questions
models of isd
Models of ISD
  • An ISD model is a human construct to help us better understand real world systems. Therefore, instructional designers propose models to guide us develop and implement more effective instructional procedures in a specified span of time.
models of isd22
Models of ISD
  • ADDIE: Core elements of ISD
  • Dick and Carey Model
  • Smith and Ragan Model
  • Keller’s ARCS Model for motivation
  • Reigeluth’s Elaboration Theory
  • 4C/ID Model

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

addie
ADDIE
  • The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. The five phases—Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation—represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools .
iterative process of addie
Iterative Process of ADDIE

Molenda, M. (2003).

dick and carey model
Dick and Carey Model

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

smith and ragan model
Smith and Ragan Model

Source: Smith & Ragan, 1999

UNESCO Training the Trainers in Information Literacy Workshop September 3-5 Ankara Turkey

keller s arcs model for motivation
Keller's ARCS Model for Motivation
  • Attention: Gaining and keeping the learner's attention. Keller's strategies for attention include sensory stimuli (as discussed previously), inquiry arousal (thought provoking questions), and variability (variance in exercises and use of media).
  • Relevance: The training program should answer the critical question, "What's in it for me?" Benefits should be clearly stated.
  • Confidence: The confidence aspect of the ARCS model is required so that students feel that they should put a good faith effort into the program. If they think they are incapable of achieving the objectives or that it will take too much time or effort, their motivation will decrease. In technology-based training programs, students should be given estimates of the time required to complete lessons or a measure of their progress through the program.
  • Satisfaction: Learners must obtain some type of satisfaction or reward from the learning experience. This can be in the form of entertainment or a sense of achievement. Other forms of external rewards would include praise from a supervisor, a raise, or a promotion. Ultimately, though, the best way for learners to achieve satisfaction is for them to find their new skills immediately useful and beneficial on their job.
reigeluth s elaboration theory
Reigeluth’s Elaboration Theory
  • Step 1. Decompose the content into Concepts, Principles and Procedures
  • Step 2. Sequence them according to their level of difficulty at macro level
  • Step 3. Sequence them according to their level of difficulty at micro level
  • Step 4. Provide comprehensivesummaries
  • Step 5. Provide opportunities for students to integrate new information with their schema (i.e., use analogies, mnemonics, diagrams, or concept maps).
  • Step 6. Use encouragement verbs to motivate students’ efforts.
references
References
  • Keller, J. (1987). An application of the ARCS model of motivational design. In

C.M.Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional theories in action: Lessons illustrating selected

theories and models. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

  • Kemp, J; G. Morrison & S. M. Ross. (1996). Desinging effective instruction.

Prentice Hall. New Jersey

  • Merrill, D. (2002). First Principles of Instruction, ETR&D, 50(3), pp. 43-59
  • Molenda, M. (2003). In search of the elusive addie model. Performance improvement,

42(5), 34.

  • Reigeluth, C.M. (1999). The elaboration theory: Guidance for scope and sequence

decisions. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New

Paradigm of Instructional Theory. (Volume II). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

  • Smith, P.L. & Ragan, T. J. (1999). Instructional Design. 2nd edition.

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill.

  • van Merriënboer, J.J.G (1997). Training complex cognitive skills: A four

component instructional design model for technical training. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Educational Technology Publications