Chapter 25. World War i and its aftermath. The Great War, 1914-1918. The Totality of WWI Full mobilization of entire societies – soldiers and civilians – and complete technological capacities of nations involved. The unexpected horror is what made WWI great.
The Totality of WWI
Those involved extended beyond the European powers and Japan.
The opening months crushed any hope of quick victory.
“I do not understand this squeamishness about the use of gas… I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes... It is not necessary to use only the most deadly gasses; gasses can be used which cause great inconvenience and would spread a lively terror and yet would leave no serious permanent effects on most of those affected.”
- Winston Churchill
Others agreed, indeed we must “insist on reserving the right to bomb niggers.”
- Lloyd George, British Prime Minister shortly after WWI
During any time of crisis, Governments will seek to place tighter controls on their citizens.
Dissident Groups Attempt to End the Brutality
The Civilians War
Russia and Revolution – Why?
Provisional Government – Their Goals
How Do You Control the Public in Democratic Societies?
Known as the dean of American journalism
Advisor to Woodrow Wilson
Helps draft the 14 Points
Liberal intellectual who believes that the public should not be controlled by force but by manipulation of opinion.
Known as the “father of public relations”
Sits with Lippmann on the Committee on Public Information (Creel Commission)
Writes a book called Propaganda claiming that :
“The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.”
Goes on to explain that "the very essence of the democratic process" is "the freedom to persuade and suggest," what he calls "the engineering of consent.”
American political scientists and communications theorist
Helped analyze Nazi propaganda films in order to discern their methods of persuasion.
He explained in the Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences that we should not succumb to "democratic dogmatisms about men being the best judges of their own interests."
When governments can’t use force to control the population, "a whole new technique of control, largely through propaganda“ is needed because of the "ignorance and superstition [of]...the masses.”
American theologian, ethicist, public intellectual.
The “cool observers,” Reinhold Niebuhr explained, must recognize "the stupidity of the average man," and must provide the "necessary illusion" and the "emotionally potent oversimplifications" that will keep the naive simpletons on course.
Stalin Takes Power, 1928
Mussolini Takes Power, 1922
Praise for Mussolini’s New Direction
Business Praise for Mussolini
J.P. Morgan & Co.
Kuhn, Loeb, and Co.
The U.S. Embassy
What Led to It?