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World War I and the Aftermath. Ch 28. I. Introduction. 1 st modernized war Old tactics met new technology 1 st war in which airplane was used Global warfare Result of imperialism Extensive alliances Triple Entente- Britain, France and Russia

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i introduction
I. Introduction
  • 1st modernized war
    • Old tactics met new technology
      • 1st war in which airplane was used
  • Global warfare
    • Result of imperialism
    • Extensive alliances
      • Triple Entente- Britain, France and Russia
      • Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire
ii the war and before
II. The War and Before
  • Imperialism led to conflict over territory
  • Arms build ups with extensive mobilization plans
    • Jingoism- extreme militaristic nationalism
  • Balkans were consistently a problem
    • Diverse, Slavic region
    • Serbia was resistant to Austria-Hungary’s control
      • Archduke Ferdinand and his Wife went on a trip to Serbia
      • GavrielPrincip assassinated both of them
ii the war and before1
II. The War and Before
  • Balkans (continued)
    • Austria-Hungary sought to punish Serbia
    • Russia vowed to back up their fellow Slavs
      • Brings in all of the alliances
  • The War Plan
    • Germany had a 2 front war
      • Schlieffen Plan- Quickly overwhelm France and Britain and move on to Russia while they are still trying to mobilize
      • Didn’t work- led to a stalemate
ii the war and before2
II. The War and Before
  • Warfare
    • Millions died with little or no progress
      • Entente- Dead 5,712,379 Wounded 12,809,280
      • Central – Dead 4,010,241 Wounded 8,419,533
      • New Weapons caused high casualties- Old War Tactics
      • Diseases caused high casualties
    • Gallipoli
      • Tried to open supply route to Russia
      • Gain control of Constantinople
ii the war and before3
II. The War and Before
  • Russia
    • High number of casualties
      • Aristocratic officers
      • Poorly trained peasants
      • Lack of coding in communications
    • Nicholas II tried to take control of army
      • He gets blamed
    • Had to bail on Entente due to uprisings at home
ii the war and before4
II. The War and Before
  • Home-fronts
    • Government takes over key industries
    • Shortages of food and fuel
      • Rationing
    • Women in the workforce
      • Women had to do the job of men
        • Suffrage in US
    • Extreme Nationalism
      • Propaganda
      • Citizens were very zealous
ii the war and before5
II. The War and Before
  • Colonies
    • Fought on the side of their colonial rulers
    • Supplied large amounts of raw materials
    • Japan
      • Allied with Britain to expel Germany from Shangdong Peninsula
      • Became an imperial power themselves
    • East Africa and Ottoman Empire sided with Germans
      • Ottoman Empire fell apart as a result
ii the war and before6
II. The War and Before
  • United States
    • Joins in 1917
    • Helped break the stalemate
    • Brought into the war after German sub sinks the Lusitania
  • The End
    • German made a huge advance
      • Turning point- 2nd Battle of the Marne
    • Tanks
    • Spanish Flu
    • German Surrender (shocked German people)
      • Armistice Day- Nov 11, 1919
      • Versailles Conference 1919- blamed Germany
iii the aftermath
III. The Aftermath
  • France (Clemenceau) wanted to punish Germany
    • Take away territory and pay reparations
  • Wilson- Wanted peace and self-determination for people who wanted freedom
    • Wanted League of Nations
    • Did not want to punish Germany
    • League of Nations
iii the aftermath1
III. The Aftermath
  • Peace of Paris
    • Germany had no say- Representatives forced
    • German territory broken up
    • Forced to pay reparations- collapsed economy
    • Austria-Hungary split up
    • Ignored Arab nations and promises to them
      • Actually divided their lands rather than help them
    • League of Nations
    • Ignored Japan and its encroachment of Chinese territory
    • US vetoed League of Nations and made separate treaty with Germany- Even though Wilson signed the Treaty of Versailles
iv colonial problems
IV. Colonial Problems
  • Colonies provided huge amounts of resources and personnel during war
    • “lesser humans” being asked to kill Europeans
  • Colonies give more self-governance during war
iv colonial problems1
IV. Colonial Problems
  • India
    • Economy was hit hard during/after the war
      • Famines
      • Shortages
    • Broken promise of self-governance
      • Morley-Minto reforms- education and voting rights
      • Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
        • Gave more power to India’s government
      • Rowlatt Act
        • Limited Indian Civil Rights
      • Mohandas Ghandi
        • Mass nonviolent protest (satyagraha) again colonial rule
iv colonial problems2
IV. Colonial Problems
  • Egypt
    • European and Turkish rule angered them
    • Lord Cromer
      • High Commissioner of Egypt
      • Pushed for economic reform
        • Only benefitted wealthy class
        • Poor starving
    • Independence sought by effendi (business/professional class)
      • Brought problems of colonial rule to attention of people
    • Dinshawai incident
      • British accidental shooting of prayer leader’s wife
      • Resulted in riots
iv colonial problems3
IV. Colonial Problems
  • Egyptian Revolt of 1919
    • Result of huge burden on peasants
      • Went without food so soldiers could eat
    • Riots soon appeared across country
      • Britain regain control
    • Wafd Party- formed by Sa’dZaghul- unified nationalist movement
      • Britain pulls out between 1922-1936
        • Vowed to protect Suez Canal
    • Egypt enters 30 years of chaos
iv colonial problems4
IV. Colonial Problems
  • Middle East problems
    • Ottoman Empire divided up after WWI
      • Turkish Republic
        • Latin alphabet, woman suffrage
    • Syria, Lebanon and Iraq were promised independence
      • Occupied by British and French
    • Hussein- sheriff of Mecca
      • Used European help to overthrow Turks
        • Angered fellow Muslims
iv colonial problems5
IV. Colonial Problems
  • Palestine
    • Promised to both Zionist and Arabs by Brits
    • Balfour Declaration- Lord Balfour promised Zionist a Jewish homeland
    • Leon Pinsker- Jewish intellectual who said Jewish assimilation impossible
      • Ex. Pogroms
    • Alfred Dreyfus
      • French Jew- accused of being German spy
      • Extreme French discrimination of Jews
    • World Zionist Organization- promoted Jewish migration to Palestine
    • Arabs feel betrayed so Britain pulls back support and then betrays Jews
iv colonial problems6
IV. Colonial Problems
  • Africa starts to gain independence
    • Initially educated were loyal to Colonizers
    • Rebellions started after forced labor and food and supply shortages because of war
    • Britain and France back outs on promises
    • Pan-African Organization- United Africa
      • African American led
    • Marcus Garvey and W.E.B DuBois were influential in trying to break up African colonialism
v conclusion
V. Conclusion
  • WWI was the war to end all wars but actually brings about WWII
    • Germany felt like they were unfairly punished for the war
      • After all, they were not the ones who started the war
      • Gives Hitler a chance to come to power
  • Communism gained a firm hold in Russia
  • Women gained more rights
  • White Supremacy looses hold in colonized holdings