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Chapter 19: World War I and Its Aftermath. Section 1: The United States Enters World War I. Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy. President Wilson was opposed to imperialism and believed democracy was necessary to keep the nation stable and prosperous .

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chapter 19 world war i and its aftermath

Chapter 19: World War I and Its Aftermath

Section 1: The United States Enters World War I

woodrow wilson s diplomacy
Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy
  • President Wilson was opposed to imperialism and believed democracy was necessary to keep the nation stable and prosperous.
  • 1911 a revolution in Mexico forced its leader, Porfirio Diaz, to flee the country.
    • General Victoriano Huerta took over in Mexico.
    • Wilson refused to recognize the new government and prevented weapons from reaching Huerta.
  • 1914 Wilson sent in marines to seize the port of Veracruz and overthrow Huerta.
    • Anti- American riots broke out in Mexico and an international mediation put Venustiano Carranza as Mexico’s new president.
wilson continued
Wilson continued
  • Mexican forces oppose Carranza and conduct raids into the United States, hoping Wilson would intervene.
    • Pancho Villa- led a group of guerilla fighters into New Mexico and kills Americans.
  • In Response to Villa actions, Wilson sends General John J. Pershing and his troops into Mexico after Villa.
    • Pershing was unsuccessful in capturing Villa and Wilson’s action hurt U.S. foreign relations.
the four causes of war
The Four Causes of War
  • Causes of WWI:
    • Imperialism
      • Everyone wanted more overseas land.
    • Militarism
      • The massive build up of armies and weapons.
    • Nationalism
      • Intense pride in one’s homeland or country.
    • Alliances
      • Both sides had secret alliances which gets everyone involved.
  • All four combined to make each nation weary of one another and it would only take one spark cause war.
the outbreak of world war i
The Outbreak of World War I
  • The origins of the war can be traced back to the 1860’s, when Prussia began a series of wars in order to unite German states.
    • 1871 Germany unites.
  • In response to German unification France and Germany were enemies.
  • Triple Alliance-
    • Germany, Austria- Hungry, and Italy.
  • Russia and France join together and form the Franco- Russian Alliance.
  • Great Britain was neutral until the early 1900’s when the decided to join up with Russia and France and form the Triple Entente.
  • Nationalism
    • Intense pride for one’s homeland.
      • Powerful idea in Europe in the 1800’s.
  • Self- determination
    • The idea that people who belong to a nation should have their own country and government.
    • Basic idea of nationalism.
  • Nationalism led to the problems in the Balkans.
    • The Balkans are apart of the Ottoman and Austro- Hungarian Empires.
    • These different types of people began to seek independence.
  • In June 1914, the heir to the Austro- Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand visits the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo.
    • GavriloPrincip, as Bosnian revolutionary charges the Archdukes car and shot the Archduke and his wife.
      • Princip was a member of the Serbian nationalist group called the “Black Hand.”
  • The Austro- Hungarian Empire blames Serbia for the assassination.
  • On July 28, Austria declares war on Serbia.
  • On August 1, Germany declares war on Russia.
  • On August 3, Germany declares war on France.
early fighting western front
Early Fighting: Western Front
  • The Germans sweep through Belgium and into France pushing the French and British troops back 30 miles from Paris.
    • Germany had to pull troops off the western front to go fight the Russians in the east.
    • The Battle of the Marne- the French and British troops finally stop the German advance.
  • Because the early German attacks didn’t defeat the French both sides became locked in a stalemate.
    • Resulting in both sides digging hundreds of miles of trenches. The stalemate would last 3 years.
  • The Allies-
    • France
    • Russia
    • Great Britain
    • Later joined by Italy and the U.S.
  • The Central Powers-
    • Germany
    • Austria- Hungary
    • The Ottoman Empire
    • Bulgaria
eastern front
Eastern Front
  • The Central Powers would have greater success in the eastern front.
  • German and Austrian forces stopped Russian attacks and then went on the offensive.
    • They swept across hundreds of miles of territory and took hundreds of prisoners.
    • The Russians suffered 2 million killed, wounded, or captured in 1915 alone.
american neutrality
American Neutrality
  • Wilson declared that the U.S. to be neutral. He didn’t want his country to be pulled into a foreign war.
    • Americans, however, began to showing support for one side or the other with many immigrants supporting their homelands.
  • Wilson’s cabinet was pro- British, believing that an Allied victory would preserve an international balance of power. The British began using propaganda to gain American support.
    • Propaganda-information used to influence opinion.
  • Many American companies had strong ties to the Allied countries and American banks gave loans to the Allies.
    • As a result American prosperity was tied to the war.
    • This money would only be paid back if the Allies won.
moving toward war
Moving Toward War
  • While most Americans supported the Allies, they did not want to enter the war.
  • The British navy blockaded Germany to keep it from getting supplies.
    • To get around the blockade, Germany deployed submarines known as u-boats and threatened to sink any ship that sailed around Britain.
  • The Lusitania, a British passenger ship was hit and sunk by a German u-boat.
    • Killed 1,200 passengers including 128 Americans.
    • America urges Germany to stop U- boat strikes.
  • The Sussex Pledge- a promise made by Germany to stop sinking merchant ships.
    • Keeps the U.S. out of the war for a little longer.
the zimmerman telegraph
The Zimmerman Telegraph

Arthur Zimmerman (a German official) cabled the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing that Mexico ally itself with Germany.

In return, Mexico would regain territory it had lost to the U.S.

The Zimmerman Telegraph was intercepted by British intelligence and leaked to American newspapers.

In February 1917, Germany went back to unrestricted submarine warfare and soon sank 6 American merchant ships.

On April 6, 1917, The United States declares war against Germany.