Chapter 14 World War I and Its Aftermath
Tuesday January 24, 2012 Causes Reading Discussion Worksheet Vocabulary
Timeline Project Assasination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand Austria-Hungry and Germany declare war on Serbia Germany declares war on Russia Germany declares war on France Britain declares war on Germany Trench Warfare U-boats Total war begins/conscription Sinking of Lusitania Zimmermann Note US enters the war Fourteen Points Czar overthrown in Russian Revolution War ends in armistice Paris Peace Conference Treaty of Versailles
Wednesday January 25, 2012 Causes Discussion Causes worksheet Notes Videos
Militarism/Arms Race What was the effect of the arms race? 2. Alliances Who were the Central Powers (Triple Alliance)? Germany, Austria-Hungry, Italy Who were the Allies (Triple Entente)? Russia, France, Britain 3. Imperialism How did competition for colonies increase tensions?4. NationalismHow did the Franco-Prussian war lead to tension between France and Germany? 5. Assassination in Sarajevo The final straw… http://www.history.com/videos/causes-of-world-war-i#causes-of-world-war-i
Central Powers (Triple Alliance)= Germany, Austria-Hungary Allies (Triple Entente)=Russia, France, Britain, Italy, United States
Ultimatum Austria sent Serbia an ultimatum…end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish any Serbian involved in the murder Serbia did not agree to all terms so on July 28, 2914 Austria declared war on Serbia
Mobilization • Germany supported Austria-Hungry • Serbia got help from Russia • Russia turned to France • Austria-Hungry and Germany declare war on Serbia • Germany declares war on Russia • Germany declares war on France • Britain declares war on Germany
The Schlieffen Plan http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/western_front/index_embed.shtml http://powermediaplus.com/player.asp?mediaID=27672&segmentID=154666
What is it? • Created to avoid a 2 front war for Germany (France on the west and Russia on the east) • Goal was to defeat France quickly then move onto Russia • This required Germany armies to march through Belgium • However…. • Britain and other European powers had a treaty with Belgium so when Germany invaded Britain declared war on Germany. Does not work, Britain declares war on Germany • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gj2v7-0tAC0
Thursday January 26, 2012 1. Turn in Timeline 2. Vocab Quiz 3. Trench Warfare Notes
Lets Get Started… Answer the following questions on a piece of paper • What does MAIN stand for? • What was the purpose in creating alliances? • Which weapon do you think made WWI end in a stalemate? • Machine gun • Submarine • Zeppelin • Which weapon made WWI a global war? • Machine gun • Submarine • Zeppelin
A New Kind of Conflict • “One out of every 4 men who went out to the World War did not come back again” • The Western Front-German forces swept through Belgium toward Paris but soon were faced with a 2 front war. Battle lines in France remained the same for almost 4 years, a stalemate. • Trench Warfare-underground networks linked bunkers, communications trenches, and gun emplacements. • “no-man’s land”
Trench Designs Note: these are not in straight lines. WHY? Zigzag to prevent enemy from firing down the line.
Trench Warfare continued • Video on trench warfare • http://www.nfb.ca/film/front-lines-the-trenchesPanoramic views of recreated trench life • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_vt_frontline.shtml
Trench Hazards Soldiers had many dangers in the trenches aside from enemy bullets. Gas Attacks could linger for days. Trench foot (Immersion Foot) Poor hygienic conditions Standing sewage, blood, and mud at the bottom of the trenches.
Immersion Foot: AKA – Trench Foot “Trench Foot” was caused by too much exposure to moisture and unsanitary conditions for prolonged periods of time. Trenches were not know for being warm and cozy.
Technology of war- • rapid fire machine guns killed many soldiers, making it hard to make advances • Poison gas=used by Germans, blinded/chocked people • Armored tank=mounted with machine guns • Zeppelins=large gas filled balloons used by the Germans to drop bombs • U-boats=German submarines • Convoys=groups of merchant ships • protected by warships
Virtual Tour of Tanks used in WWI http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_mark_one_tank.shtml
A Global Conflict • Eastern Europe=August 1914, Russian armies push into eastern Germany and suffer one of the worst defeats of the war at the Battle of Tannenberg • Southern Europe=In 1915, Italy declared war on Austria Hungry and Germany • War outside Europe=fighting took place all over the world
Friday January 27, 2012 Total War notes
What’s going on with Italy…. In 1915, Italy had signed the secret Treaty of London. In this treaty Britain had offered Italy large sections of territory in the Adriatic Sea region – Tyrol, Dalmatia and Istria. Such an offer was too tempting for Italy to refuse. Britain and France wanted Italy to join in on their side so that a new front could open up t the south of the Western Front. The plan was to split still further the Central Powers so that its power on the Western and Eastern Fronts was weakened. The plan was logical. The part Italy had to play in it required military success. This was never forthcoming.
Winning meant total war… • Nations realized that if they wanted to win they had to have total war=putting all of a nation’s resources into a war effort • Conscription=“the draft” • Raised taxes • Rationing • Setting prices and forbid strikes • In order to keep public opinion controlled, information had to be censored • Propaganda=spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause
Women started working in factories as the men left for war • Nurses on the front line • Helped them gain the right to vote
Russia • Russia was having a revolution within its own borders during WWI. • Brought down the Czar • Lenin came to power and signed the treat of Brest-Litovsk ending Russian participation in WWI • This allowed Germany to focus all its efforts on the Western front….more to come next chapter
The United States joins the war • German u-boat sank the British liner Lusitania • Zimmermann Note-the US intercepted a message from German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann, to Mexico • This message said Germany would help Mexico reconquer territory in the US. • April 1917-US declares war on Germany • The Fourteen Points • Woodrow Wilson issues the Fourteen Points, his terms for ending WWI and all future wars • Self-determination-the right of people to choose their own form of government • November 11, 1918-World War I ends with an armistice=an agreement to end fighting
Death Toll Britain : 750,000 soldiers killed; 1,500,000 woundedFrance : 1,400,000 soldiers killed; 2,500,000 woundedBelgium : 50,000 soldiers killedItaly : 600,000 soldiers killedRussia : 1,700,000 soldiers killedAmerica : 116,000 soldiers killed Those who had fought against the Allies suffered heavy casualties as well: Germany : 2,000,000 soldiers killedAustria-Hungary : 1,200,000 soldiers killedTurkey : 325,000 soldiers killedBulgaria : 100,000 soldiers killed The total deaths of all nations who fought in the war is thought to have been 8.5 million with 21 million being wounded.
1. No more secret agreements • 2. Free navigation of all seas. • 3. An end to all economic barriers between countries. • 4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers. • 5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial • 6. The German Army is to be removed from Russia. left to develop her own political set-up. • 7. Belgium should be independent like before the war. • 8. France should be liberated and allowed to recover Alsace-Lorraine • 9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in Italy. Italy's borders are to "along clearly recognisable lines of nationality." • 10. Self-determination allowed for all those in Austria-Hungary. • 11. Self-determination and guarantees of independence should be allowed for the Balkan states. • 12. The Turkish people should be governed by the Turkish government. Non-Turks in the old Turkish Empire should govern themselves. • 13. An independent Poland created with access to the sea. • 14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial independence of all states.
In groups of 3 answer the following questions • 1. Which of the Fourteen Points do you feel is the most important? Why? • 2. In what order would you rank the fourteen points, from most important to least important? • 3. What was Woodrow Wilson trying to accomplish with the Fourteen Points? • 4. How realistic were Wilson’s ideas? Explain. • 5. How idealistic were Wilson’s ideas? Explain. • 6. Do the Fourteen Points address the causes of World War I? If yes, which ones?
Monday January 30, 2012 Propaganda Posters • Make a poster encouraging people to help with the war effort for WWI OR the current war in Afghanistan • Be creative • 10 points • Visual appeal- • 10 points • Demonstrate motivational style to excite people about helping the war • 10 points
Tuesday January 31, 2012 Treaty of Versailles worksheets Clip from youtube- World War I Summary http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YXqppJ-L88U&feature=related Post-war Map
Making the Peace • Reparations-war debts. Germany had to pay the most. • Paris Peace Conference • The Big Three-Woodrow Wilson (United States), David Lloyd George (Britain) and George Clemenceau (France) • Led to the Treaty of Versailles • Big Three Handout…
Treaty of Versailles Territory The following land was taken away from Germany : Alsace-Lorraine (given to France) Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium) Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark) Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia) West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland) The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the control of the League of Nations and the people of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay in Germany or not in a future referendum. The League of Nations also took control of Germany's overseas colonies.Germany had to return to Russia land taken in the Treaty ofBrest-Litovsk. Some of this land was made into new states : Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. An enlarged Poland also received some of this land.
Military Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men; the army was not allowed tanks not allowed an air force and only 6 capital naval ships and no submarines The west of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of the River Rhine was made into a demilitarised zone (DMZ). No German soldier or weapon was allowed into this zone. The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.
Financial Germany had to pay most of the reparations and take blame for WWI (War Guilt Clause)