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World History II SOL Review . Independence Movements – World Today. Independence in Africa - Overview. Negritude Movement – a movement to celebrate African culture, heritage, and values Right to self-determination (U.N. charter) Peaceful and violent revolutions after World War II

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world history ii sol review

World History IISOL Review

Independence Movements – World Today

independence in africa overview
Independence in Africa - Overview
  • Negritude Movement – a movement to celebrate African culture, heritage, and values
  • Right to self-determination (U.N. charter)
  • Peaceful and violent revolutions after World War II
  • Resentment toward imperial rule and economic exploitation
kenya
Kenya
  • Bloody – British settlers owned prime farmland in the highlands of Kenya and resisted independence for Kenya
  • Leader – Jomo Kenyatta
ghana
Ghana
  • West Africa – peaceful transition
  • Originally called Gold Coast under the British
algeria
Algeria
  • War for independence from France
south africa
South Africa
  • Struggle against apartheid
  • Led by Nelson Mandela, who became the first black president of South Africa
religious conflict palestine vs israel
Religious Conflict – Palestine vs. Israel
  • Both Palestinians and Israelis want the same land
  • Creation of Israel in 1948 led to many conflicts between Israel and countries in the Middle East (Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, etc…)
  • 1993 – creation of a Palestinian state (Gaza Strip and West Bank)
religious conflict ireland and northern ireland
Religious Conflict – Ireland and Northern Ireland
  • Protestants vs. Catholics
  • IRA (Irish Republican Army) – wants a united Ireland (Northern Ireland – part of Great Britain)
  • Today – not an issue
religious conflict balkans
Religious Conflict - Balkans
  • 1990s – Slovenia and Croatia separate from Yugoslavia
  • Serbian-led Yugoslav army invaded both Croatia and Slovenia – became free from Serbian rule
  • February 1992 – Bosnia Herzegovina declared independence
  • April 1992 – Serbia and Montenegro formed a new Yugoslavia
  • While Bosnian Muslims and Croats supported independence, Bosnian Serbs did not
religious conflict balkans1
Religious Conflict - Balkans
  • Supported by Serbia, Bosnian Serbs launched a brutal war in 1992 (ethnically cleanse Bosnia Herzegovina of all Muslims)
india
India
  • Leader – Gandhi
  • Role of civil disobedience and passive resistance (boycotts and Salt March)
  • Hindu-Muslim conflict
  • 1947 partition – India (Hindus) and Pakistan (Muslims)
pakistan
Pakistan
  • Was created based on a religious issue and divided into two territories (East and West)
  • Conflict between East and West (linguistic, religious, and regional issues)
bangladesh
Bangladesh
  • 1971 – East Pakistan declared its independence
  • East Pakistan became Bangladesh
china
China
  • Division of China into two nations at the end of the Chinese civil war
  • Chiang Kai-shek – nationalist China (Taiwan)
  • Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) – Communist China (mainland China)
  • Continuing conflict
developed nations
Developed Nations
  • North America and Europe
  • Economic stability - prosperous
  • High literacy rates (most people can read and write)
  • Health care (most people have access to health care)
  • Low birth rate/lowinfant mortality rate
  • Population growth - slow
developing nations
Developing Nations
  • Africa and Asia
  • Economic Conditions – Poverty
  • Low literacy rate
  • Health care (diseases)
  • High birth rate/high infant mortality rate
  • Growing population – rapid
impact of new technologies
Impact of New Technologies
  • Widespread but unequal access to computers and instantaneous communications
  • Genetic engineering and bioethics
factors affecting environment and society
Factors Affecting Environment and Society
  • Economic development (pollution)
  • Rapid population growth (strain on natural resources)
environmental challenges
Environmental Challenges
  • Pollution
  • Loss of habitat (places to live)
  • Global climate change
social challenges
Social Challenges
  • Poverty
  • Poor health
  • Illiteracy
  • Famine
  • Migration
economic interdependence
Economic Interdependence
  • Role of rapid transportation, communication, and computer networks
  • Rise and influence of multinational corporations
  • Changing role of international boundaries
  • Regional integration (European Union – tariff-free trade among European nations)
economic interdependence1
Economic Interdependence
  • Trade Agreements – North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) – tariff-free trade between U.S., Canada, and Mexico and World Trade Organization (WTO) – monitors trade among nations
  • International Organizations – United Nations + International Monetary Fund (IMF) – offers emergency funds to countries in crisis
refugees
Refugees
  • Refugees as an issue in international conflicts (ex. Palestinian-Israeli conflict forced a lot of Palestinians into Jordan) – people who are forced to leave their homelands because of war, poverty, political problems, and environmental disasters
migrant workers
Migrant Workers
  • People who leave their homeland to work elsewhere (Ex. Central and South Americans coming to the United States) – guest workers
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