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World History II SOL Review

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  1. World History IISOL Review Great Depression – Cold War

  2. Great Depression - Causes • German reparations • Buying on credit • Overproduction – high supply + low demand = low prices for farm goods and manufactured goods • Protective Tariffs – countries passed tariffs (taxes on imports) to make people buy goods produced and food grown in their country (foreign goods were more expensive) • Stock Market Crash (October 1929)

  3. Great Depression - Results • High unemployment • Bank failures + collapse of credit • Collapse of prices in world trade • Growth of Fascism (extreme nationalism) in Italy and Germany • Nazi Party blamed Jews for the economic collapse

  4. Adolf Hitler • Germany • Came to power because of inflation and Great Depression (legally came to power) • Anti-Semitism • Extreme nationalism (fascist) • Nazi Party • Challenge to world power – sent troops into the Rhineland (demilitarized zone according to Versailles treaty)

  5. Benito Mussolini • Italy • Fascist (1st fascist leader) • Wanted to restore the glory of the Roman Empire • Challenge to world power – invaded Ethiopia

  6. Tojo • Japan • Militarist • Japan’s industrialization – need for raw materials and markets • Challenge to world power – invaded Korea, Manchuria, and rest of China

  7. World War II - Causes • Aggression by totalitarian power (Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo) • Nationalism (Fascism – extreme nationalism) • Failures of the Versailles Treaty • Weakness of the League of Nations • Appeasement – Munich Conference (gave Hitler the Sudetenland to avoid war) • Isolationism/Pacifism in United States and Europe

  8. World War II – Major Events • Began – German invasion of Poland • France fell (Britain left alone to fight the Axis Powers) • Battle of Britain – bombing of London • Operation Barbarossa – German invasion of the Soviet Union • U.S. entered war after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor • U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end war with Japan

  9. World War II – Major Leaders • Franklin D. Roosevelt – President of the U.S. • Harry Truman – replaced Franklin Roosevelt as president/dropped atomic bomb on Japan • Dwight D. Eisenhower – Allied commander in Europe (D Day) • Douglas MacArthur – U.S. General in the Pacific • Winston Churchill – Prime Minister of England • Joseph Stalin – dictator of Soviet Union • Hirohito – Emperor of Japan

  10. Outcomes of World War II • European powers loss of empires (ex. Japan lost territory gained by the war) • Two super powers emerged – U.S. and Soviet Union • Nuremberg Trial – tried Nazis for war crimes • Division of Europe – Iron Curtain (capitalist/democratic vs. communist/totalitarian) • United Nations

  11. Outcomes of World War II • NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) – military alliance that included U.S., Canada, and western Europe • Warsaw Pact – Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

  12. Holocaust • Genocide – the systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group • Elements leading to the Holocaust – history of anti-Semitism, defeat in World War I and Great Depression blamed on the Jews, Hitler’s belief in a master race, and Final Solution (death camps)

  13. Examples of Other Genocides • Armenians by leaders of the Ottoman Empire • Peasants, government and military leaders, and members of the elite in the Soviet Union by Joseph Stalin (Great Purge) • The educated, artists, technicians, former government officials, monks, and minorities by Pol Pot in Cambodia • Tutsi minority by the Hutu in Rwanda • Muslims and Croats By Bosnian Serbs in Yugoslavia

  14. Post World War II - Japan • U.S. occupation of Japan led by MacArthur • Improved economy • Brought democracy to Japan – constitution/elections • Japan can only have a military for defense

  15. Post World War II – Germany • Division of East (Soviet Union) and West (U.S., France, and Great Britain) • Division of Berlin (East and West) • Democratic government in West Germany

  16. Early Cold War • Yalta Conference - meeting of three main allied leaders (Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill) + planned "the whole shape and structure of post-war Europe“ + Stalin had the right to control the governments of Eastern Europe (Soviet troops were already stationed throughout Eastern Europe as they pushed toward Germany) • Democracy and Capitalism vs. Dictatorship and Communism • Truman Doctrine – contain communism (not let it spread)

  17. Marshall Plan • Rebuild Western Europe (aid and assistance) – prevent the spread of communism

  18. Berlin Wall • Surrounded city of West Berlin so that people would not escape to West Germany

  19. Korean War • Cause – North Korea invaded South Korea • Result – North Korea and South Korean still divided along 38th parallel • China supported North Korea and U.S. supported South Korea

  20. Vietnam War • Cause - Ho Chi Minh encouraged communist rebels to overthrow South Vietnamese government • Results - U.S. troops left Vietnam + unification of Vietnam (communist country) • Vietnamization Nixon's administrations policy of building up South Vietnamese forces while gradually withdrawing American troops • Domino Theory If Vietnam became a communist country, the countries adjacent to (surrounding) Vietnam would also become communist countries

  21. Cuban Missile Crisis • Cause – Soviet Union places nuclear missiles in Cuba • Results – Soviet Union removed missiles and U.S. promised not to invade Cuba

  22. Collapse of Soviet Union • Communism failed!! - increasing Soviet military expenses to compete with the United States + economic inefficiency • Gorbachev and President Reagan – key leaders • Eastern European countries (communist block) wanted independence  U.S. encouraged dissidents (people who wanted independence) in communist countries (Poland) • Some Warsaw Pact countries joined NATO after collapse of Soviet Union – expansion of NATO

  23. Collapse of Soviet Union • Establishment of independent states in Eastern Europe and the breakup of the Soviet Union • Movement toward a free market economy • Fall of Berlin wall and reunification of Germany