chapter 4 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 4 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 4

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 35

Chapter 4 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Chapter 4. Ecosystems. Standard 2: Students know and understand the characteristics and structure of living things, the processes of life, and how living things interact with each other and their environment. . Concepts and Skills to Master:

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 4' - webb

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 4

Chapter 4



Standard 2: Students know and understand the characteristics and structure of living things, the processes of life, and how living things interact with each other and their environment.

  • Concepts and Skills to Master:
    • Matter tends to be cycled within an ecosystem, while energy is transformed and eventually exits an ecosystem.

Abiotic factor algal bloom

Biomass biotic factor

Carnivore commensalism

Ecosystem estivation

Food web herbivore

Humus niche

Omnivore trophic level

Pyramid of biomass pyramid of energy

Pyramid of numbers

First-order consumers Video: approx. 60 min

Second-order consumers

Third-order consumers

interactions among organisms
Interactions Among Organisms
  • In every community, organisms interact with one another. The relationships between the different organisms is known as the biotic factor in an environment.

Biotic Factor is the relationship between living things (3:57)


The interaction of a community with its environment is an ecological system also called an ecosystem.

  • In almost all ecosystems, the original source of energy starts with the sun.

Due to changes in an ecosystem like volcanoes, floods or drought opportunities arise for different organisms to replace existing ones in a single place over time in a process called succession.

First where there was bare ground, pioneer species will grow, then be replaced by grasses and shrubs, then eventually trees.

major biomes
Major Biomes

A biome is a large region characterized by a specific kind of climate and certain kinds of plant and animal communities.

Climate is the average weather conditions over a long period of time in a specific area.

Two key factors that determine the types of biomes that exist are temperature and precipitation.

terrestrial biomes
Terrestrial Biomes

Major terrestrial biomes can be grouped by latitude into:

Tropical (at the equator)

Temperate (Mid latitudes)

High Latitude (Cold temperatures)

aquatic ecosystems
Aquatic Ecosystems

Freshwater (bodies of fresh water—rivers, lakes ponds)

Wetlands (link between land and fully aquatic habitats)

Estuaries (where river and ocean meet)

Marine (fully aquatic, salty waters of the oceans)ss

Virtual Investigation (DVD) on Ecosystems and Energy pyramids.

the flow of energy 2 05
The flow of energy (2:05)
  • Interactions between organisms involve the exchange of energy, usually by feeding upon one another. Thus, each organism represents a feeding step called a trophic level.

Marine trophic level

  • A niche describes how an organism fits into an ecosystem.
  • Because each organism is unique, no two organisms can occupy the same niche in an ecosystem.

Niches (1:33)

trophic levels 1 33
Trophic levels (1:33)
  • Producer (plants, Autotrophs or Photoautotrophs)
  • First-order consumers (herbivores)
  • Second-order consumer (carnivores)
  • Third-order consumer (large carnivores)
  • Decomposers are consumers as well.
  • Omnivores eat both plants and animals.
decomposers 0 54
Decomposers (0:54)
  • When any organism dies, it is eventually eaten by detrivores (like vultures, worms and crabs) and broken down by decomposers (mostly bacteria and fungi), and the exchange of energy continues.
food web
Food Web
  • All the possible feeding relationships that exist in an ecosystem make up a food web.
  • What are the primary producers, 1st, 2nd and 3rd consumers in this marine food web?
  • Construct food web

Marine Food Web (2:10)

pyramid of energy 1 05
Pyramid of Energy (1:05)

The transfer of energy within an ecosystem is called the pyramid of energy.

Energy originally produced is not lost, just changed into different forms of energy such as heat.

Energy can also be stored—more than ½ of the potential energy in each food molecule is lost as heat energy during cellular respiration.

pyramid of numbers 1 55
Pyramid of numbers (1:55)
  • The loss of energy between the trophic levels explains why there are fewer organisms in each higher level than the previous one.
  • This relationship is called the pyramid of numbers.

The pyramid of numbers does not apply to all food chains. An exception would be where a large organism is fed upon by smaller ones. Example: a dog infested with parasites.

biomass 1 24
Biomass (1:24)
  • Biomass is the amount of dried organic matter at different trophic levels.
  • Most ecosystems have a pyramid of biomass.
  • Aquatic systems do not form a pyramid because most of the producers are microscopic algae.
  • Commensalism occurs when one organism benefits from another without aiding or harming the host.
  • Remoras are “hitchhiker” fish that eat the leftovers of larger fish. They don’t help or hurt the fish, so it’s a commensal relationship.

Whaleshark and remora

carbon cycle in an ecosystem
Carbon Cycle in an Ecosystem
  • Energy is not cycled but replaced by sunlight’s energy.
  • Carbon dioxide from aerobic respiration, fuel emissions and volcanic activity is recycled into organic and inorganic substances.
  • Click for Carbon Cycle(11:07)
  • Mutualism is a mutually beneficial relationship between organisms.
  • The bee feeds on the flower and pollinates it at the same time. Both benefit.
  • Coral Reef Ecosystem(3:49)

Bee and flower

  • A parasite is an organism who is dependent upon a host.
  • Indian paintbrush (Castillejaindivisa) is a parasitic plant that obtains some of its nutrients and water from host plant--bluebonnet (Lupinustexensis).

Indian paintbrush and bluebonnet

abiotic factors of the environment
Abiotic Factors of the Environment
  • Physical aspects of an ecosystem affect the reproduction, feeding, growth and metabolism of organisms within that system.
  • Abiotic factors include:
    • Water
    • Soil
    • Light
    • Temperature

Abiotic Factors are the relationship between non-living things.


All organisms need water.

  • Available water is a limiting factor for organisms.
  • Evaporation, condensation and precipitation are the primary phases in the water cycle.
  • Water cycle (click here)
  • Soil is important to organisms because it’s where plants grow and animals make their homes.
  • Soil holds many microorganisms and decomposers that are important for the cycling of materials.
  • Humus is the decayed remains of organisms in soil.

Soil layers

let there be light
Let there be Light
  • Light is the source of energy for almost all ecosystems. It provides the energy for photosynthesis:
  • 6CO2 + 6H2 O  C6H12O6 + 6O2
  • Light is also required for vision, and heat absorption that results in evaporation.
  • Organisms are adapted to survive within particular temperature ranges.
  • Temperatures change from day to night and season to season.
  • Temperature and day length can cause mammals to migrate or hibernate in winter.
  • Metabolic rate decreases during hibernation.

Hazel dormouse hibernating in burrow


Sand diving lizard

Temperature can also affect metabolic rate (activity of enzymes). Organisms cannot survive above 50oC because enzymes are destroyed.

Lizards compensate for desert heat by shading up during the day while some frogs go dormant.

Summer dormancy is called estivation.

disrupting the balance
Disrupting the Balance
  • An ecosystem can be temporarily altered by biotic and abiotic factors.
  • Both these factors help regulate population sizes in that resources are not overused.
  • Naturally occurring disruptions include floods, earthquakes and volcanoes.
human activities and nature s balance 1 33
Human Activities and Nature’s Balance (1:33)
  • Certain human activities can alter nature’s delicate balance.
  • Too many phosphates from detergents can increase algae, creating an algal bloom that eventually suffocates other organisms.