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14.4. Simple Machines. The 6 Simple Machines. Lever Wheel and Axle Inclined Plane Wedge Screw Pulley. Lever. Rigid bar that is free to move around a fixed point Fulcrum = Fixed point a lever rotates around Input Arm = Distance between the fulcrum in a lever and the input force

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14.4

Simple Machines

the 6 simple machines
The 6 Simple Machines
  • Lever
  • Wheel and Axle
  • Inclined Plane
  • Wedge
  • Screw
  • Pulley
lever
Lever
  • Rigid bar that is free to move around a fixed point
  • Fulcrum = Fixed point a lever rotates around
  • Input Arm = Distance between the fulcrum in a lever and the input force
  • Output Arm = Distance between the fulcrum in a lever and the output force
ima of a lever
IMA of a lever
  • IMA = Input Arm / Output Arm
first class lever
First Class Lever
  • The fulcrum is located between the input force and the output force
  • Example: Seesaw, scissors
  • MA <, >, or = 1
second class lever
Second Class Lever
  • Output force is located between the input force and the fulcrum
  • Example: Wheelbarrow
  • MA > 1
third class lever
Third Class Lever
  • Input force is located between the fulcrum and the output force
  • Examples: Baseball bat, hockey stick
  • MA < 1
wheel and axle
Wheel and Axle
  • Simple machine that consists of two rigidly attached disks or cylinders, each one with a different radius
wheel and axle1
Wheel and Axle
  • IMA = (radius where the input force is exerted) / (radius where the output force is exerted)
  • IMA <, or > 1
  • IMA for a steering wheel is > 1
inclined planes
Inclined Planes
  • Slanted surface along which a force moves an object to a different elevation
switchback roads
Switchback Roads
  • ..\..\switchbackroads.jpg
  • Why do they exist?
  • The input force is decreased when the input distance is greater than the output distance
wedge
Wedge
  • V-shaped object whose sides are two inclined planes sloped toward each other
  • Often used to split wood.
screw
Screw
  • Inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder
  • Screws with threads that are closer together have a greater IMA
pulley
Pulley
  • Simple machine that consists of a rope that fits into a groove in a wheel
fixed pulley
Fixed pulley
  • Wheel attached in a fixed location
  • Only able to rotate in place
  • Direction of the input force is changed, not the size
  • IMA = 1
movable pulley
Movable Pulley
  • Attached to an object being moved
  • Used to reduce the input force needed to lift a heavy object
  • IMA = 2
pulley system
Pulley System
  • Combination of fixed and movable pulleys
  • IMA of a pulley or pulley systems = number of rope sections supporting the load being lifted
  • To move this object

5 m up, I need to

pull 20 m of rope

compound machine
Compound Machine
  • Combination of two or more simple machines that operate together
  • The output force of one simple machine becomes the input force for another simple machine