Which psychological disorder? • If depression is the common cold of psychological disorders, chronic ___is the cancer. • Nearly 1 in 100 people will develop ___, joining the estimated 24 million across the world who suffer one of humanity’s most dreaded disorder (WHO).
Louis Wain • Conventional, naturalistic • Vibrant, erratic
Schizophrenia APA: n. a psychological disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking(cognition), emotional responsiveness, and behavior. DSIM-IV-TR: a disorder that lasts for at least 6 months and includes at least 1 month of active-phase symptoms (two [or more] of the following: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms)
Diagnostic Criteria A. Characteristic Symptoms: two (or more) of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated): (1) delusions (2) hallucinations (3) disorganized speech (4) grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior (5) negative symptoms Positive Symptoms
Positive Symptoms • Delusions • Erroneous beliefs that involve a misinterpretation of perceptions/experiences • Themes: persecutory, referential… • Hallucinations • Distortions in perception (auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, tactile) • Not consider normal / religious experiences in certain cultural contexts • Disorganized Thinking ★★★★★ • Distortions in thought and language processes • Derailment/tangentiality/incoherence • Grossly disorganized behavior • Distortions in self-monitoring of behavior • Catatonic motor behaviors • A decrease in reactivity to the environment
Negative Symptoms • Affective flattening • Restrictions in the range / intensity of emotional expression • Facial expression, eye contact, body language • Alogia • Restrictions in the fluency / productivity of thought and speech • Brief replies, unwillingness to speak • Avolition • Restrictions in the initiation of goal-directed behavior • Little interest in participating in work /social activities
B. Social/occupational dysfunction: • one or more major areas of functioning (work, interpersonal relations, or self-care) are markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset • Education, work, marriage, social contacts C. Duration: • Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 months. Must include at least 1 month of symptoms.
D. Schizoaffective and mood disorder exclusion: b/c either (1) no Major Depressive, Manic, or Mixed Episodes have occurred concurrently with the active-phase symptoms, or (2) if mood episodes have occurred during active-phase symptoms, their total duration has been brief relative to the duration of the active-phase symptoms. E. Substance/general medical condition exclusion: the disturbance is NOT b/c direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. F. Relationship to a pervasive developmental disorder: if there is a history of Autistic Disorder or another Pervasive Developmental Disorder, the additional diagnosis of Schizophrenia is only if prominent delusions or hallucinations are also present for at least 1 month (or less if successfully treated).
Subtypes Dr. Cup • Paranoid • A preoccupation w/ delusions or hallucinations • Unless the Catatonic or Disorganized Type is present • Disorganized • Disorganized speech, disorganized behavior (NO Catatonic Type present) • Catatonic • Motoric immobility, excessive motor activity/negativism, peculiarities of voluntary movement • Undifferentiated • Criterion A + No Paranoid/Disorganized/Cataonic Type • Residual • Continuing evidence of the disturbance, but the criteria for the active-phase symptoms are no longer met.
The Etiology – WHY? • Brain Abnormalities • Dopamine overactivity • Abnormal brain activity: frontal lobe, thalamus, amygdala • Materal virus during midpregancy • Genetic Factors • Identical twins / adoption studies • Specific genes: dopamine, neurotransmitters, myelin • Nutritional /oxygen deprivation at brith • Psychological Factors • Social support, family problem-solving • “refrigerator mothers”
Age, Culture, Gender • General: adults 0.5%~1.5%, urban-born • Age: late teens~the mid 30s • Culture • Cultural differences (hallucinations, disorganized speech) • Overdiagnose certain ethnic groups • Gender • Male: higher incidence • Median age of 1st episode: mid 20s(M), late 20s (F)
Possible Preventions? • Cognitive-behavioral therapy • Needs-based supportive therapy • Supportive society, family, school • Healthy life (exercise)
A CASE STUDY of a Celebrity • Conservatorship • Formal diagnosis at UCLA Medical Center • Was hospitalized for psychiatric evaluation after setting fire in Californian neighborhood
MCQ 1. A false belief that a person believes that he is being watched or tormented by others is known as a: • Delusion of reference • Persecutory delusion • Religious delusion • Somatic delusion • Grandiose delusion
MCQ 2. The most common type of hallucination is: • Olfactory • Visual • Auditory • Tactile • Somatic
MCQ 3. Which of the following is NOT a positive symptom of schizophrenia? • Delusions • Hallucinations • Disorganized speech • Alogia • Catatonic motor speech
MCQ 4. Which of the following is NOT a subtype of schizophrenia? • Undifferentiated • Active • Residual • Disorganized • Paranoid
MCQ 5. People with schizophrenia who have poverty of speech, inability to express their emotion and initiate a goal are said to be experiencing ______symptoms • Positive • Negative • Extrusive • Intrusive • Residual
AP Style FRQ • Schizophrenia is a psychological disorder that results in serious forms of suffering. Hence, psychologists have worked to identify its nature and origins. • Identify three characteristic symptoms that are primarily used to diagnose schizophrenia. • Discuss possible etiology for schizophrenia.
Bibliography Amanda bynes' secret twitter account reveals possible schizophrenia symptoms & violent threats!. (2013, 10 1). Perezhilton. Retrieved from http://perezhilton.com/2013-06-05-amanda-bynes-secret-twitter-account-reveals-schizophrenia-symptoms/ American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychological Association. (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Helicon. (2013, March 1). Re: Louis Wain: the effects of schizophrenia on the perception of the artist [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://heliconbristol.blogspot.kr/2013/03/louis-wain-effects-of-schizophrenia-on.html Mash, Eric. J., & Barkley Russell A. (Eds.). (2003). Child psychopathology. New York: The Guilford Press. Myers, D.G. (2010). Psychology.(9thed). New York: Worth publishers. Smith, M. (2013, 10 2). Amanda bynes new diagnosis bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Las Vegas Guardian Express. Retrieved from http://guardianlv.com/2013/10/amanda-bynes-new-diagnosis-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia/