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Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders. What is Normal?. Psychopathology : Scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders; abnormal or maladaptive behavior Subjective discomfort : Private feelings of pain, unhappiness, or emotional distress

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what is normal
What is Normal?
  • Psychopathology: Scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders; abnormal or maladaptive behavior
  • Subjective discomfort: Private feelings of pain, unhappiness, or emotional distress
  • Statistical abnormality: Having extreme scores on some dimension, such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression
what is normal cont
What is Normal? (cont)
  • Social nonconformity: Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct; usually leads to destructive or self-destructive behavior
  • Situational context: Social situation, behavioral setting, or general circumstances in which an action takes place
    • Is it normal to walk around naked among strangers? If you are in a locker room and in the shower area, yes!
clarifying and defining abnormal behavior mental illness
Clarifying and Defining Abnormal Behavior (Mental Illness)
  • Maladaptive behavior: Behavior that makes it difficult to function, to adapt to the environment, and to meet everyday demands
  • Mental disorder: Significant impairment in psychological functioning
    • Those with mental illness lose the ability to adequately control thoughts, behaviors, or feelings
general risk factors for contracting mental illness
General Risk Factors for Contracting Mental Illness
  • Biological factors: Genetic defects or inherited vulnerabilities; poor prenatal care, head injuries, exposure to toxins, chronic physical illness, or disability
  • Psychological factors: Low intelligence, stress, learning disorders
  • Family factors: Parents who are immature, mentally ill, abusive, or criminal; poor child discipline; severe marital or relationship problems
  • Social conditions: Poverty, homelessness, overcrowding, stressful living conditions
insanity
Insanity
  • Definition: A legal term; refers to an inability to manage one’s affairs or to be unaware of the consequences of one’s actions
    • Those judged insane (by a court of law) are not held legally accountable for their actions
    • Can be involuntarily committed to a psychiatric hospital
    • How accurate is the judgment of insanity?
psychotic disorder
Psychotic disorder
  • Severe mental disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusions, social withdrawal, and a move away from reality
  • Psychosis
    • Loss of contact with shared views of reality
    • Typically marked by delusions and hallucinations, and personality disintegration
features of psychosis
Features of Psychosis
  • Delusions- False beliefs that individuals insist are true, regardless of overwhelming evidence against them
  • Hallucinations- Imaginary sensations, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling things that do not exist in the real world
    • Most common psychotic hallucination is hearing voices
    • Note that olfactory hallucinations sometimes occur with seizure disorder (epilepsy)
some more psychotic symptoms
Some More Psychotic Symptoms
  • Flat affect: Lack of emotional responsiveness; face is frozen in blank expression
  • Disturbed verbal communication: Garbled and chaotic speech; word salad
  • Personality disintegration: When an individual’s thoughts, actions, and emotions are no longer coordinated
delusional disorders
Delusional Disorders
  • Marked by presence of deeply held false beliefs (delusions)
    • May involve delusions of grandeur, persecution, jealousy, or somatic delusions
    • Experiences could really occur!
  • Paranoid psychosis: Most common delusional disorder
    • Centers on delusions of persecution
schizophrenia the most severe mental illness
Schizophrenia: The Most Severe Mental Illness
  • Psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, apathy, thinking abnormalities, and “split” between thoughts and emotions
    • Does NOT refer to having split or multiple personalities
the four subtypes of schizophrenia
The Four Subtypes of Schizophrenia-
  • Disorganized Type
  • Catatonic Type
  • Paranoid Type
  • Undifferentiated Type
causes of schizophrenia
Causes of Schizophrenia
  • Psychological trauma: Psychological injury or shock, often caused by violence, abuse, or neglect
  • Disturbed family environment: Stressful or unhealthy family relationships, communication patterns, and emotional atmosphere
  • Deviant communication patterns: Cause guilt, anxiety, anger, confusion, and turmoil
biochemical causes of schizophrenia
Biochemical Causes of Schizophrenia
  • Biochemical abnormality: Disturbance in brain’s chemical systems or in the brain’s neurotransmitters
  • Dopamine over-activity in brain may be related to schizophrenia

Dopamine: Neurotransmitter involved with emotions and muscle movement

    • Works in limbic system
  • Glutamate: A neurotransmitter; may also be involved
organic mental disorder
Organic Mental Disorder
  • Mental or emotional problem caused by brain pathology
    • brain injuries or diseases, drug damage, poisons, and so on
    • May cause severe emotional disturbances, impaired thinking, memory loss, personality changes, delirium or psychotic symptoms
    • Dementia: Most common organic problem; serious mental impairment in old age caused by brain deterioration
mood disorders
Mood Disorders
  • Major disturbances in mood or emotion, such as depression or mania
  • Depressive disorders: Sadness or despondency are prolonged, exaggerated, or unreasonable
  • Bipolar disorders: Involve both depression and mania or hypomania
moderate mood disorders
Moderate Mood Disorders
  • Dysthymic disorder: Moderate depression that lasts for at least two years
  • Cyclothymic disorder: Moderate manic and depressive behavior that lasts for at least two years
major mood disorders
Major Mood Disorders
  • Lasting extremes of mood or emotion and sometimes with psychotic features (hallucinations, delusions)
  • Major depressive disorder: A mood disorder where the person has suffered one or more intense episodes of depression; one of the more serious mood disorders
bipolar disorders
Bipolar Disorders
  • Bipolar I disorder: Person experiences extreme mania and deep depression
    • Mania: Excited, hyperactive, energetic, grandiose behavior
  • Bipolar II disorder: Person is mainly sad but has one or more hypomanic episodes (mild mania)
anxiety based disorders
Anxiety-Based Disorders
  • Anxiety: Feelings of apprehension, dread, or uneasiness
  • Adjustment disorders: When ordinary stress causes emotional disturbance and pushes people beyond their ability to effectively cope
anxiety disorders
Anxiety Disorders
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
  • Panic Disorder without Agoraphobia
  • Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia
  • Agoraphobia without Panic Disorder
more anxiety disorders
More Anxiety Disorders
  • Specific Phobias
  • Social Phobia
  • Stress Disorders
    • Acute Stress Disorder
    • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
obsession
Obsession
  • Recurring images or thoughts that a person cannot prevent
    • Cause anxiety and extreme discomfort
    • Enter into consciousness against the person’s will
    • Most common: About being dirty, wondering if you performed an action (turned off the stove), or violence (hit by a car)
compulsion
Compulsion
  • Irrational acts that person feels compelled to repeat
    • Help to control or block out anxiety created by obsessions
    • Checkers and cleaners
theoretical causes of anxiety disorders
Theoretical Causes of Anxiety Disorders
  • Humanistic: Unrealistic self-image conflicts with real self-image
  • Existential: Anxiety reflects loss of meaning in one’s life
  • Behavioristic: Anxiety symptoms and behaviors are learned, like everything else
    • Conditioned emotional responses that generalize to new situations
more theoretical causes of anxiety disorders
More Theoretical Causes of Anxiety Disorders
  • Avoidance learning: When making a particular response delays or prevents the onset of a painful or unpleasant stimulus
  • Anxiety reduction hypothesis: When reward of immediate relief from anxiety perpetuates self-defeating avoidance behaviors
  • Cognitive: When distorted thinking causes people to magnify ordinary threats and failures, leading to anxiety and distress
somatoform disorder
Somatoform Disorder

Physical symptoms that mimic disease or injury (blindness, anesthesia) for which there is no identifiable physical causeSomatization Disorder- Person expresses anxieties through numerous physical complaints

  • Many doctors are consulted but no organic or physical causes are found
munchausen syndrome by proxy
Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy
  • Person fakes the medical problems of someone in his or her care in order to gain attention
munchausen syndrome
Munchausen Syndrome
  • Person fakes his or her own medical problems in order to gain attention
hypochondriasis
Hypochondriasis
  • Person is preoccupied with having a serious illness or disease
    • Interpret normal sensations and bodily signs as proof that they have a terrible disease
    • No physical disorder can be found
dissociative disorder
Dissociative Disorder
  • Temporary amnesia, multiple identity, or depersonalization (like being in a dream world, feeling like a robot, feeling like you are outside of your body)
  • Dissociative amnesia: Inability to recall one’s name, address, or past
  • Dissociative fugue: Sudden travel away from home and confusion about personal identity
    • Usually triggered by highly traumatic events
dissociative identity disorder did
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
  • Person has two or more distinct, separate identities or personality states; previously known as multiple personality disorder
    • Sybil or The Three Faces of Eve are good examples
    • Often begins with horrific childhood experiences (e.g., abuse, molestation, etc.)
    • Therapy often makes use of hypnosis
    • Goal: Integrate and fuse identities into single, stable personality
pain disorder
Pain Disorder
  • Pain that has no identifiable organic, physical cause
    • Appears to have psychological origin
conversion disorder
Conversion Disorder
  • Severe emotional conflicts are “converted” into physical symptoms or a physical disability
    • Caused by anxiety or emotional distress but not by physical causes
personality disorders
Personality Disorders

Deeply ingrained, unhealthy, maladaptive personality patterns

antisocial personality disorder apd
Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)
  • A person who lacks a conscience (superego?); typically emotionally shallow, impulsive, selfish, and manipulative toward others
    • Often called psychopaths or sociopaths
  • Many are delinquents or criminals, but many are NOT crazed murderers displayed on television
  • Create a good first impression and are often charming
  • Cheat their way through life (e.g., Scott Peterson)
apd causes and treatments
APD: Causes and Treatments
  • Possible causes:
    • Childhood history of emotional deprivation, neglect, and physical abuse
    • Underarousal of the brain
  • Very difficult to effectively treat; will likely lie, charm, and manipulate their way through therapy
a final few psychological disorders
A Final Few Psychological Disorders

Substance-related disorder: Abuse or dependence on a mind- or mood-altering drug, like alcohol or cocaine

Person cannot stop using the substance and may suffer withdrawal symptoms if they do

Sexual and gender identity disorders: Problems with sexual identity, deviant sexual behavior, or sexual adjustment

common characteristics of suicidal thoughts and feelings shneidman 1987
Common Characteristics of Suicidal Thoughts and Feelings (Shneidman, 1987)
  • Escape
  • Unbearable psychological pain
  • Frustrated psychological needs: Such as searching for love, achievement, or security
  • Constriction of options: Feeling helpless and hopeless and deciding that death is the only option left
suicide prevention
Suicide Prevention
  • The Number One component people with suicidal ideation and/or attempts need is HOPEthat life can be improved.
  • HOPEis an essential component of all mental health interventions.