Yield Estimation based on Layout & Process Data

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Yield Estimation based on Layout & Process Data. by Karthik Subramanian Master’s Thesis Work Mar 2003. Contents. Introduction to yield. Concept of “critical area” in ICs. Interconnect yield model. Yield estimation at the schematic stage. Yield estimation at the layout stage.

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### Yield Estimation based on Layout & Process Data

by

Karthik Subramanian

Master’s Thesis Work

Mar 2003.

Contents
• Introduction to yield.
• Concept of “critical area” in ICs.
• Interconnect yield model.
• Yield estimation at the schematic stage.
• Yield estimation at the layout stage.
• Layout optimization for yield enhancement.
“Yield” in the Semiconductor Industry
• Yield : something yielded: PRODUCT; especially: the amount or quantity produced or returned.
• Assessment of the quality of the design.
• Design for manufacturability (DFM).
• Manufacturability : measure of the number of defect-free chips that can be produced from a single wafer[1].
• Manufacturability M = Nchip * Y

Cchip = Cwf/(Nchip * Y)

Why DFM?
• DFM: optimization of designs for maximum yield in the presence of contamination.

(a). High wafer yield through contamination control has become difficult and hard to achieve.

(b). Increase in fabless design houses, which have little control over the manufacturing process; can control costs only by optimizing designs for higher yield[2].

• Prediction of the IC area and yield is, therefore, critical to any sound IC design methodology.
Yield Loss in ICs
• Yield loss occurs when there is an unacceptable mismatch between the expected and actual parameters of an IC.
• Yield loss in ICs are classified into two types:

(a).Functional yield loss (Yfnc) due to spot defects (shorts & opens).

(b).Parametric yield loss (Ypar) due to global process disturbances.

• Defects: circular disks of extra/missing material in any layer of the IC[3].

Total Yield = Yfnc * Ypar

“Critical Area” in ICs
• The susceptibility of an IC layer to a defect is captured by the “critical area” function.
• The critical area for a defect of radius rd is defined as that area on a die where if the center of a circular defect falls, a fault occurs in the circuit[3].
Interconnect Yield Model
• The yield loss primarily takes place in the metals:

(a). The use of the metal layer is more extensive than that of any other layer in the IC.

(b). The defect count is more in the metal layer.

• Poisson’s yield model: Y = exp(-A*D);

A = die area; D = defect density.

• The interconnect yield Y of the chip[5]:

ACr= critical area; r0 = defect radius; r1 = half (the min. Spacing between metals); K and p are model parameters.

Yield Estimation at the Schematic Stage
• Approximate value of the yield at the early stage of the design process.
• The Critical area is a function of the structural attributes of the circuit.
• Critical area can be calculated by extracting the structural parameters from the netlist of the circuit.
Yield Estimation at the Layout Stage
• Layout: physical form of the design – gives a realistic value of the yield.
• Use of Virtuoso-XL Layout editor to convert the circuit schematic to its layout, by placing cells and Autorouting the cells (Virtuoso Custom Router).
• Design of sample layouts using Virtuoso Layout editor.
• Extraction of Critical area using Cadence Dracula.
• Estimation of yield at the layout stage using the Interconnect yield model.
Extraction of Critical Area for Shorts
• Step 1: Expand each geometry shape by radius R.
• Step 2: Find the intersection area of such expanded geometry.
• Step 3: Find the union of all intersection area.
• Step 4: Repeat steps 1, 2, and 3 for a range of defect sizes[6].
Extraction of Critical Area for Opens
• Step 1: Shrink both the edges of the conducting path by radius R; extend the left and right edges of the shrunk conducting path by radius R.
• Step 2: Shrink all edges of the rectangular contact by radius R.
• Step 3: Find the union of the shrunk area.
• Step 4: Repeat steps 1, 2, and 3 for a range of defect sizes[4].
Yield Enhancement by Layout Optimization
• Design of appropriate cells, that are small in size.
• Choosing smart place and route strategies/optimization of wire spacing.

(b). Reducing Cell Utilization.

(c).Relaxing metal design rules[7].

References

[1] Heineken H.T., Khare J., Maly W., “Yield loss Forecasting in the early phases of the VLSI design process”, Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, Proceedings of the IEEE, 5-8 May 1996, PP.27-30.

[2] Heineken H.T., Khare J., d’Abreu.M, “Manufacturability Analysis of Standard Cell libraries”, “Custom Integrated Circuits Conference”, Proceedings of the IEEE, 11-14 May 1998, PP.321-324.

[3] Heineken H.T., Maly W., “Manufacturability Analysis Environment – MAPEX”, Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, Proceedings of the IEEE, 1-4 May 1994, PP.309-312.

[4] Ouyang C.H., Pleskacz W.A., Maly W., “Extraction of critical areas for opens in large VLSI circuits”, Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI Systems, 1996 IEEE International Symposium on, pp.21-29.

[5] Heineken H.T., Maly W., “Interconnect Yield model for Manufacturability prediction in synthesis of standard cell-based designs”, Computer-Aided Design, 1996, ICCAD-96. Digest of Technical Papers., 1996 IEEE/ACM International Conference on , 10-14 Nov 1996 , pp.368 –373.

[6] Nag P.K., Maly W., “Hierarchical extraction of critical area for shorts in very large ICs”, Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI Systems, 1995, Proceedings, 1995 IEEE International Workshop on, pp.19-27.

[7] Ouyang C., Heineken H.T., Khare J., Shaikh S., d'Abreu M., “Maximizing Wafer productivity through Layout optimizations”, VLSI Design, 2000, Thirteenth International Conference on , 2000 , pp. 192 –197.

http://www.uta.edu/icdesign/