Time management, Quality Assurance and Record keeping Er Tulasi P Sitaula Ministry of PP, Works,and Transport Management
Structure of Presentation • Key Issues • Time and Cost over run • Project timings • Some tools • Quality non compliance • Poor records and • Poor data • Introduction • Background • Time as a Resource • Project time • Management • Quality Assurance • Conclusion • Key Issues • The way forward
THREE Questions An essay by Leo Tolstoy • The most important person is the person with whom you are talking now, The most important thing is what you are doing now and , • The most important time is NOW, i.e the Present time • Past is gone, future is uncertain, • So we need to manage our present time in the best possible way for a better future
Background • Time is valuable element in life of everything • ‘Time and Tide waits for no man’ – a Proverb • Nepali Time : accepted delay/time waste • Better late than never/ Safety view point • More Haste, More Waste xtktsf] sfd ntkt • TIME is the basic element of any PLAN
Background • Time is money • Time is powerful/ ;do anafg 5 • infra-structure is not sustainable • Due to: poor construction quality/ faulty design • There is TIME overrun/COST overrun/Buck Shifting and Dispute • Quality management is a prerequisite for sustainable construction
Basics of Time • There's never enough time to do it right first time but there's always enough time to go back and do it again • Time is the essence of many jobs • All these sayings tell about preciousness of time in one way or the other • Time lost by a mass of size N, =Time lost by each X N It will work out a fantastic figure, For a delay of 1 hr for 10000 ppl It is 1250 manday working 8 hrs That is more than THREE years of work for a person!!
Time as Felt by a child • Even though he could not tell time, my three-year-old grandson was wearing a watch when I visited • Later, when I was putting on my coat to leave, I asked him what time it was ? • He looked at his watch blankly, then brightened "It's time for you to go," he answered triumphantly Birds go back to nests once its dark! Everybody has some feeling of time !! • Although in its own way
Time management • Time management is a tricky business • It is both ART and Science • It is difficult for us to manage the time of single person “ME” • Imagine how a project manager manages the time of many persons, “WE”: and ultimately the PROJECT
PROJECT • A Project is a series of activities aimed at bringing about clearly specified objectives within a defined time period and with a defined budget • A project is an organized commitment of effort to produce a defined outcome within defined constraints of scope, time, budget, and quality • Project Management is the art and science of working within defined constraints of scope, time, cost, and quality • Project manager is a person responsible for the project, who may use project management to deliver it
PROGRAM • A Program is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually • Program may include elements of related work outside scope of the discrete projects in the program • program management is a method to manage related group of projects • Programs have larger scope than projects and run typically at higher levels in the organization • Strategic initiatives are linked to programs
Life Cycle Cost approach • A simple example • Total Cost • Cost • O&M cost • Construction cost • Time
Time management Versus Delay • Never put off until tomorrow what you can leave until the day after • The first 90% of a project takes 90% of the time the last 10% takes the other 90% • If it happens once it's ignorance, if it happens twice it's neglect, if it happens three times it's policy • Some things that don't count are counted, many things that count aren't counted • It's not the hours that count, it's what you do in those hours • People under pressure do not think fast
Quality Versus timescale • A minute saved at the start is just as effective as one saved at the end • The more ridiculous the deadline the more money will be wasted trying to meet it • The project would not have been started if the truth had been told about the cost and timescale • Warning: dates in the calendar are closer than you think • If you have time to do it over again, you'll never get away with doing it right the first time • The bitterness of poor quality lingers long after the sweetness of meeting the date is forgotten
What is said and felt about Project Manager • Good project management is not so much knowing what to do and when, as knowing what excuses to give and when. • Everyone asks for a strong project manager - when they get him they don't want him • For a project manager overruns are as certain as death and taxes • Good project managers admit mistakes: that's why you so rarely meet a good project manager • The most successful project managers have perfected the skill of being comfortable being uncomfortable • Good project managers know when not to manage a project • Too few people on a project can't solve the problems - too many create more problems than they solve
About project communication • Effective Communication is essential for project success • Of several possible interpretations of a communication, the least convenient is the correct one • What is not on paper has not been said • So the communication must be in writing so as to implement it • A verbal contract isn't worth the paper it's written on • The conditions attached to a promise are forgotten, only the promise is remembered
Why to reduce Project time Finish the project in a predefined deadline date Recover early delays to avoid liquidated damages Free key resources early for other projects Avoid adverse weather conditions that might affect productivity Receive an early completion-bonus Improve project cash flows Bring the project for early use Manage a free time for a vacation abroad!!
How to reduce Project time What is the way to reduce activity duration? Working extended hours (Over time) Offering incentive payments to increase the productivity ( Hanging 500 Rs Note in between 2 groups of concreting workers) Using additional resources Using materials with faster installation methods Using alternate construction methods or sequence
Project Time Control • Work Schedule • Revised work schedule • Fine for not submission/updating • Milestone/intermediate milestones • Mobilization advance and recovery schedule • Advance payment against material • Timely payment of bills/Interests • Basis for idle resource/price adjustment • Certification by project official required
Resource Allocation Assigning the available Resources in an economic way In Project management resource allocation is the scheduling of activities and the resources required by those activities while taking into consideration both resource availability and project time In Strategic planning, resource allocation is a plan for using available resources in near term, to achieve the goal for future It is the process of allocating resources to various activities/projects/business units Is time a resource? Does time play role in Resource Allocation??
Project management Laws • Work expands to fill the time available for its completion - Parkinson's law • "Nothing will ever be attempted if all possible objections must first be overcome." Samuel Johnson, 1759
Project management Laws • Cohn's Law • The more time you spend in reporting on what you are doing, the less time you have to do anything. Stability is achieved when you spend all your time doing nothing but reporting on the nothing you are doing • Project Managers will not get the staff they need so long as they muddle through with overtime, ulcers and super-human effort. Only when deadlines are missed will senior management approve the staff who, had they been available at the outset, would have prevented the missed deadlines
Basic Provisions in PPA and PPR Public Procurement Act 2063 and Public Procurement Regulation 2064 are in use Out of a total of 76 clauses about 40 relate time directly and many others mention indirectly Procurement plan mandatory for procurement > 10 lakhs Master Procurement Plan required if Procurement value> 10 crore in a year If the project runs for more than a year ( cl 6) Master Procurement Plan needs to be updated every year Procurement Plan to be approved by chief of procurement unit Master PPlan to be approved by Secretary Responsible Procurement unit to be established
Basic Provisions in PPA and PPR Clarification on bids : ( cl 16) To be given if asked by prospective bidder in written and within time More time is to be given for bid preparation if the document is modified Withdrawal of submitted bid is possible on written request within time Modification of submitted bid on time allowed
Basic Provisions in PPA and PPR Review/appeal on procurement decision ( cl 47) First appeal to Chief of procurement Review Committee if cost is more than 3 crore Deposit @ .5% of bid amount essential Deposit forfeited if claim is not true Decision to be given in 30 days Compensation if work is already awarded Committee is there No review request so far ??
Critical Path Method, CPM as a powerful time control tool The CPM is one of several related techniques for project planning. CPM helps us identify a complex project's critical paths We can find how long a project will take and which activities must be finished on time to maintain completion date If we also have information about costs and crash costs and times, CPM helps us determine how long the project should take, and which activities should be sped up ("crashed") CPM is for projects that are made up of a number of individual "activities." If some of the activities require other activities to finish before they can start, then the project becomes a complex web of activities.
Critical Path Method, CPM as a time control tool CPM can help us figure out: how long your complex project will take to complete which activities are "critical," meaning that they have to be done on time or else the whole project will take longer If we put in information about the cost of each activity, and how much it costs to speed up each activity, CPM can help you figure out: whether you should try to speed up the project, and, if so, what is the least costly way to speed up the project.
Project Time Management Work schedule Mile stones and Intermediate mile stones defined/ followed Prompt revision of work schedule Proper record of work/ progress Proper evaluation for time extension Fine imposed if negligence is found Termination if timely progress is not there Termination if timely payment is not there
Project management timings • Estimate of time is necessary along with quantity • Time estimates are critical since it serves as a baseline for future comparison of the activities and efforts • There is bonus for early completion and penalty/liquidated damage for delay Time is specified for most activities in Public Procurement Act 2063 and Public Procurement Regulation 2064 as below • Time for tender notice • Time for Letter of Intent, LOI • Time for Request for Proposal, RFP • Time for Defect Liability Period, DLP
Project management timings • Time for completion • Time for submitting schedule/revised schedule • Time for payment of mobilization • Time for payment of Interim Bills • Time for site possession • Time for complaint lodging • Time for adjudication/arbitration • Time for dispute resolution • Extension of time for project • Adjustment of price and time related coefficients • Termination of contracts • Frustration and termination for mutual convenience
Project management timings • Project pay back timing • Project cycle timing • Timing for cyclic works • Timing for periodic works • Timing of 125 days for emergency works in roads • Timing for release of authority to spend • Timing for program submission • Timing for program revision • Best timing for doing certain activities • Fine for not obeying timing • As built drawing submission • Project accounts settling time of 3 months
Project Risks and sharing it • Projects are usually subject to certain Risks • Project Planners need to identify, quantify and make contingency plans to deal with project risks • Project Risks can be judiciously shared between Public and Private partners: between Employer, Engineer and the Contractor: and between various stakeholders
Project management Risks • Projects without mechanism to handle risks are bound to fail to attain its specified objectives • If you fail to plan properly you are planning to fail • If you don't attack the risks, the risks will attack you • A little risk management saves a lot of fan cleaning • The sooner you get behind schedule, the more time you have to make it up.
How to manage time and activities • 1 urgent important - DO NOW • 2 Important - PLAN TO DO • 3 not important - REJECT AND EXPLAIN • 4 not urgent not important - RESIST AND CEASE'
Earned Value Analysis: a project control tool Q7503, Fall 2002
Project Triangle: You can have only twoFast=Time:Good=Quality: Cheap= Cost
Time Cost Quality triangle We can change the triangle by at least changing two sides
Where are you wasting time? • If you ask people about the pressures of time, many will say that "they can't get enough done in the day" or they are "constantly busy and stressed". • You may look to make a change, but you don't know how? • The first step in learning time management skills is to get objective data about your time usage • We are prey to some time-wasters - activities that steal time when we could be spending time more productively • Too much time on email, long winded phone calls, surfing the net - all fine to do unless you are stressed about a lack of time and these activities aren't your objectives
Developing a time management plan • One of the top tips on time management is to plan • If you fail to plan then you plan to fail • With the pressure of clients, your boss breathing down your neck, and the looming deadline - you might be asking "how can I find time to plan!“ • But planning is crucial for your success - whether it is long term planning such as personal goal setting, or daily planning in your to do list
Developing a time management plan • By having a plan you ensure that you have your top priorities written down. Even if you deviate from your plan (which you surely will) at least you can come back to it • While planning occurs at many levels, yearly, monthly, or daily - the simplest and most effective time management tools is the daily planner • By keeping a prioritized to do list in your time management planner, you identify your priorities and ensure that you don't overlook things • TIP. writing your daily plan try to be as specific as you can
Be ruthless with your priorities • With hundreds of emails clogging your Inbox, with news to read and phone calls to take - it can be difficult to stay ahead of the curve and focus on your priorities • One of the top tips on time management is to stay focused on your priorities, ensuring that you do the most important tasks for you or your job. This is a defining characteristic of successful people • Effective people schedule their priorities to ensure they get done what is important to them - rather than responding to lower priority tasks. • But how to do this when we live in a world in which priorities appear to change on an hourly basis?
Focus on your priorities and delegate tasks • Probably one of the most underutilized yet most talked about time management tools is delegation • Whether you are a small one-person business or a major business - delegation can free up your time to focus on your top priorities and be used as a training opportunity for colleagues • One good way to think about delegation is to know how much your time is worth with this time management exercise • If you earn Rs200,000 a year your time is worth about Rs 120/hour and at Rs500,000 a year your time is worth about Rs 300/hour • These thoughts can help you to prioritize your tasks, determine whether to outsource, and determine whom to delegate tasks to
Progress Monitoring • The 3 key Progress Monitoring Questions • What is the actual status? • If there’s a variance, what is cause? • What to do about it? • Possible responses • 1. Ignore • 2. Take corrective action • 3. Review the plan Q7503, Fall 2002
Progress Monitoring • Monitoring rates • Daily, weekly, monthly • If problems occur – then adjust • You may have to monitor problem areas more closely • For some period of time • Almost always there’s one or more areas under closer scrutiny • Status Reporting • Part of the communications management plan Q7503, Fall 2002
Tips for time management • 1Know what is important. • 2 Prioritize and make "To Do" lists. • This does not include items you like to get done today, but only the item(s) that have to be completed today • 3. Avoid the "feel like its." • Poor time managers base their actions on their feelings and moods. You know the type, "Yeah, I know the garbage can is overflowing, but I don't feel like taking it out right now • 4 Learn to delegate • A person who refuses to delegate will likely be a very busy, frustrated and heading for burnout • It is not necessary for a manager to personally handle every item
Tips for time management • 5 Toss it or file it • Follow the rule to touch paper only once. Know what is important and throw away every piece of paper you don't think you will need • 6 Use folders to prioritize your work; sub-divide files • 7 Be realistic and stay flexible. • 8 Schedule time for you • 9 Answer E-mail immediately • 10. Make sure your electronic planner does not cost you time • Time is valuable, and time management can help us to be more productive, successful and less stressed out to have more time to enjoy the life more
Some more Tips for time management • Start early and on time, end on time and most importantly respect other people’s time • Divide your tasks into four essential categories, and define them as Urgent and Important, Not Urgent but Important, Urgent but not Important, and Not Urgent and Not Important, add to it a “set of Goals in your mind” and you’re on your way to a better time management • Time Management is not a rocket science, all you need to learn is how to prioritize, delegate and say “no”