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Record Keeping. Ag Management Chapter 2. Why Keep Records. Comply with income tax reporting requirements Assist in planning and management. Kinds of Records. Chart of Accounts Provides inventory of information needed to construct financial statements

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record keeping

Record Keeping

Ag Management

Chapter 2

why keep records
Why Keep Records
  • Comply with income tax reporting requirements
  • Assist in planning and management
kinds of records
Kinds of Records
  • Chart of Accounts
    • Provides inventory of information needed to construct financial statements
    • Includes- income & expense ledger, inventory of current assets, machinery account with depreciation schedules, loam amortizations, land account & any other records needed for good management
  • Net Worth Statement
  • Income Statement
good records allow you to
Good Records Allow You To…
  • Compare past performance with present performance and future goals.
  • Good records show you where you’ve been, where you are and where you are going.
steps to setting up a records system
Steps to Setting Up A Records System
  • Select a system suited to your particular needs
  • Select an accounting system suited to your business situation
  • Select a method of reporting farm income and expenses
  • Develop procedures to get exactly the information needed from the records
financial records
Financial Records
  • Receipts and expenses
  • Give the net worth statement, income statement and cash flow summary
physical records
Physical Records
  • Show the production of crops and livestock and the usage of inputs
  • Include
    • Crop yield records
    • Livestock births, deaths and weanlings
    • Unpaid family labor
    • Acres planted
    • Bushels harvested
factors for level of record selection
Factors For Level of Record Selection
  • The amount of information desired from the records
  • The amount of time you can devote to record keeping
  • Your record keeping abilities
3 levels of record keeping
3 Levels of Record Keeping
  • Income Tax Purposes Only
  • Income Tax plus some business analysis
  • A complete farm or ranch business analysis
accounting terms
Accounting Terms
  • Accounting Period: a regular period of time, as a month or a year, for which an operative statement is drawn up.
  • Cash Accounting: records income and expenses based on the actual cash transaction
  • Accrual Accounting: reports income and expenses in the time period they occur. Income when it is recoverable and expenses when they are payable.
  • Single Entry: List receipts and expenses without any effort to maintain a current balance between them
  • Double Entry: Keeps track of current changes each time a transaction is made-each credit transaction must be balanced by a debit transaction.
4 ideas to help set up a record keeping system
4 Ideas to Help Set Up A Record Keeping System
  • Learn about the system before starting to use it.
  • Develop a habit of keeping the record system up-to-date. Make entries regularly and enter complete information.
  • Do most business through a bank account
  • Get the bank statement each month and reconcile the checkbook and record keeping system
reasons to inventory
Reasons to Inventory
  • Get a true picture of the business and nonbusiness financial situation
  • Reflect noncash income and expenses.
  • Provide a management tool
  • To place values on business and nonbussiness assets.
factors that determine inventory date
Factors that Determine Inventory Date
  • Significance in the business operation
  • Convenience to the operator
most popular inventory date for farmers and ranchers
Most Popular Inventory Date for Farmers and Ranchers
  • January 1
  • The ending inventory for one year is also the beginning inventory for the next.
  • Inventories need to be completed at the same time each year to ensure accuracy.
  • Items to be inventoried
    • See p. 2-10 and 2-11
guidelines for making inventory counts
Guidelines For Making Inventory Counts
  • Measure quantities in commonly used units
  • Group like items
book value formula
Book Value Formula
  • Cost - Depreciation=Book Value
current value formula
Current Value Formula
  • Actual cost or market value- Sale Expense= Current Value
other methods of valuation
Other Methods of Valuation
  • Cost Minus Depreciation
  • Cost Minus Depletion
  • Market Cost
  • Net Market Price
  • Farm Production Cost
  • Cost or Market Value
  • Actual Amount (Value of Liability Owed)
cash receipts are funds flowing in and include
Cash Receipts are Funds Flowing IN and Include
  • Business Income
  • Nonbusiness Income
  • Income from the sale of items purchased for resale
  • Income from the sale of capital assets
  • Money borrowed or accounts receivable paid
cash expenditures flowing out
Cash Expenditures Flowing OUT
  • Business expense
  • Purchase of items for resale
  • Purchase of capital assets
  • Principal paid on accounts payable
  • Nonbusiness investments
  • Family Living Expense
according to publication 225 the farmer s tax guide
According to Publication 225 The Farmer’s Tax Guide….
  • Crop sales
  • Government payments
  • Custom work
  • Patronage dividends
  • Refunds
  • Re-sales
  • Cash rent
  • Commodity Credit Loans
  • Crop Insurance
  • Livestock Products
  • Raised Non-breeding Livestock
  • Items purchased for resale
  • Capital Sales
non business income
Non-Business Income
  • Income received from all sources other than farming
sources of non business income
Sources of Non-Business Income
  • Wages, salaries and other earnings not from farming
  • Investments such as dividends received, stock distributions, partnership income, investment clubs and income from non-farm business
  • Depletion income from oil and gas royalties, mineral lease bonuses, gravel sales, and timber sales
  • Interest received from savings accounts, NOW checking accounts, and savings bonds
  • Rental income from rental houses, for use of farm land, income received from sale of crop shares
  • Non-taxable income such as gifts, inheritances, life insurance proceeds, interest on tax-free bonds, social security benefits, money borrowed, payment from loans to other people and reimbursement of non-business expenses
cash flow summary1
Cash Flow Summary
  • A record of the cash inflows and outflows of the business for a year
  • Used to compare to the cash flow projection to determine if the operation is staying within budget and to help make business decisions
other useful records
Other Useful Records
  • Credit
  • Hired Labor
  • Enterprise
  • Supplemental
why hired labor records are useful
Why Hired Labor Records are Useful
  • Provide a basis for determining rewards
  • Help determine the real contribution of labor to an enterprise
taxes involved with hired labor records
Taxes Involved with Hired Labor Records
  • Income and Social Security (FICA)
  • Unemployment (FUTA)
enterprise records
Enterprise Records
  • Accounting records, farm receipts and expenses that are directly related each specific farm enterprise
  • 3 General categories
    • Major Enterprise
    • Minor Enterprise
    • Overhead Enterprise
  • Items that CAN NOT be allocated to farm enterprise
    • Capital Sales and Purchases
    • Inflow & Outflow from loans
    • Non-farm receipts and expenses
internal transfers
Internal Transfers
  • The movement some items from one enterprise to another.
  • Example: Feeding hay from the hay enterprise to cows in the cattle enterprise
supplemental records
Supplemental Records
  • Supply additional information which helps provide a more complete record system
4 good reasons to keep family living records
4 Good Reasons to Keep Family Living Records
  • Help identify family living receipts and expenses
  • Assist the farmer or rancher in accounting for income and expenses that are not listed in the farm records
  • Help develop future family living budgets
  • Help identify nonfarm business incomes and expenses
  • Complete Chapter 2 Review Sheet
    • DUE-