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Chapter 3 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

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  1. Chapter 3 • A. Gene function • Genes and protein synthesis and mutation • (diagram) • B. Genetic diseases • Identification of genes • Pedigrees/DNA markers • Diseases (PKU, Albinism, CF, • Huntington Disease, DMD) • C. Use/Misuse of genetic information • Genetic tests • Prenatal testing • PCR (polymnerase chain reaction) • Eugenics (positive/negative)

  2. How proteins are made (protein synthesis): tRNA RNA Polymerase ribosomes (protein, rRNA) DNA mRNA protein 4 "letters” 4 "letters” 20 "letters" transcriptiontranslation (in nucleus) (in cytoplasm)

  3. What is a “gene?” the DNA from a part of a chromosome that “codes” for a particular product (protein)

  4. double helix nucleotides a chromosome • Chromosomes have from • 50 -250 Mb (Megabytes) of nucleotides • 50,000,000 to 250,000,000

  5. Review DNA Replication • DNA is double stranded • Base pairing between strands A = T C G

  6. Thymine Cytosine Adenine Guanine

  7. Review DNA Replication • DNA is unwound • DNA Polymerase finds compliment to each nucleotide and makes new strands • Two identical molecules of DNA

  8. Review DNA info RNA info • nucleic acid • double-stranded • four nucleotides • A, C, G, T • base-pairing • nucleic acid • single-stranded • four nucleotides • A, C, G, U • base-pairing

  9. Protein synthesis (A) • Unwind DNA • Make strand of RNA complimentary to one DNA strand • RNA Polymerase is the enzyme

  10. Protein synthesis Fig 25.8

  11. Protein synthesis (A) • RNA produced is call mRNA (messenger) • It is produced in the nucleus • The information has been re-written • from one nucleic acid “dialect” (DNA) to • another (RNA) • Process is called transcription Fig 25.8

  12. How proteins are made (protein synthesis): tRNA RNA Polymeraseribosomes (protein, rRNA) DNA mRNA protein 4 "letters” 4 "letters” 20"letters" transcriptiontranslation (in nucleus) (in cytoplasm)

  13. Protein synthesis (B) • mRNAis moved to the cytoplasm • It will bind to the ribosome • proteins • rRNA (ribosomal RNA) • Remember where the ribosomes are ? Fig 25.8

  14. Protein synthesis (B) • tRNA • carries • amino acid • has • anticodon Fig 25.8

  15. Protein synthesis (B) • tRNA • carries • amino acid • has • anticodon Fig 25.10 Fig 25.8

  16. Protein synthesis (B) • tRNA • The tRNA with a particular anticodon (GCU) will always carry the same amino acid. (Complimentary codon is. . . Fig 25.8

  17. Protein synthesis (B) • tRNA • The tRNA with a particular anticodon (GCU) will always carry the same amino acid. (Complimentary codon is CGA Fig 25.8

  18. Protein synthesis (B) mRNA sequence Fig 25.8 Fig 25.6

  19. Protein synthesis (B) • mRNAis moved to the cytoplasm • It will bind to the ribosome • proteins • rRNA (ribosomal RNA) Fig 25.12 Fig 25.8

  20. Protein synthesis (B) mRNA sequence Fig 25.8 Fig 25.6

  21. Protein synthesis (B) • mRNAis moved to the cytoplasm • It will bind to the ribosome • proteins • rRNA (ribosomal RNA) Fig 25.12 Fig 25.8

  22. Fig 25.12 Fig 25.8

  23. Fig 25.12 Fig 25.8

  24. fig. 3-1

  25. fig. 3-3

  26. fig. 3-4

  27. fig. 3-5

  28. Review Outline 2 How proteins are made (protein synthesis): tRNA RNA Polymeraseribosomes (protein, rRNA) DNA mRNAprotein 4 "letters” 4 "letters” 20"letters" transcriptiontranslation (in nucleus) (in cytoplasm)

  29. If you know the DNA sequence, you can determine the mRNA sequence and can determine what order the amino acids will be arranged in the protein… Fig 25.8 Fig 25.6

  30. If you know the DNA sequence, you can determine the mRNA sequence and can determine what order the amino acids will be arranged in the protein… …so lets make some hemoglobin. Fig 25.8 Fig 25.6

  31. Everybody gets an job or identity • Enzymes (2) (make polymers) • DNA nucleotide (A=T; C=G) • RNA nucleotide (A=U; C=G) • tRNA (find and carry your amino acid) • Amino acid (sit there and look pretty) Fig 25.8 Fig 25.6

  32. Everybody gets an job or identity • Enzymes (2) (make polymers) • DNA nucleotide (A=T; C=G) • RNA nucleotide (A=U; C=G) • tRNA (find and carry your amino acid) Fig 25.8 Fig 25.6

  33. Thymine Cytosine Adenine Guanine

  34. Chapter 3 • A. Gene function • Genes and protein synthesis and mutation • B. Genetic diseases • Identification of genes • Pedigrees/DNA markers • Diseases (PKU, Albinism, CF, • Huntington Disease, DMD) • C. Use/Misuse of genetic information • Genetic tests • Prenatal testing • PCR (polymnerase chain reaction) • Eugenics (positive/negative)

  35. Identification of genes • pedigrees

  36. Identification of genes • pedigrees fig 3-7

  37. DNA markers • Unique place on a chromosome that can be detected with a probe.

  38. DNA markers • Unique place on a chromosome that can be detected with a probe. • Follow different DNA markers that fit the pedigree

  39. Pedigree = =

  40. Pedigree = disease = normal

  41. Analysis ? Define terms

  42. Define terms: N = normal n = diseased (e.g., CF)

  43. nn nn

  44. N_ N_ N_ N_ N_ N_ N_ nn nn

  45. N_ N_ N? N? N_ N_ N_ nn nn

  46. N_ N_ Nn Nn N_ N_ N_ nn nn