Disaster Strikes Galveston – 1900 • Galveston was the most modern Texas City in 1900. It was then struck by a hurricane. The storm killed 6000 and left many homeless.
Disaster Strikes Galveston – 1900 • It was the worst natural disaster in U.S. history.
Disaster Strikes Galveston – 1900 • To protect Galveston from future hurricanes, they built a sea wall and jacked up houses on stilts.
Oil • Oil was already known about. Natives had used it for medicines, De Soto used it to repair ships, it was used to grease wagon wheels and it was used for kerosene lamps.
Spindletop – the First Gusher – 1901 • Near Beaumont, on a small hill named Spindletop, after digging for oil a little over a 1000 feet, mud, oil and gas came shooting as high as a 100 feet.
Spindletop – the First Gusher – 1901 • Spindletop Oil Field yielded more than 4 times the amount of oil that had been produced the year before by all Texas oil combined.
Spindletop – the First Gusher – 1901 • Spindletop increased the economic development. Beaumont’s population increased from 9,000 to 50,000. Oil companies called the Texas Company (Texaco) were started.
Spindletop – the First Gusher – 1901 • Exxon - Mobil was started at Humble in 1904.
Spindletop – the First Gusher – 1901 • Houston was booming thanks to the oil production in that area and it became a major city in the U.S.
Lumber Booms • The lumber industry took off in East Texas. Rail lines went through East Texas making it easy to get the lumber to the market. • Life as a lumber worker was tough. There were several job related injuries and this had Texas to come up with workers’ compensation.
Dallas Dominates Central Texas • Dallas emerged as a major city. Dallas became a center for banking, insurance, legal services, and retail. • Their location was key for Dallas. It was located on the rails. Neiman – Marcos department store was established in Dallas.
The Progressive Movement • The Terrell Election Law • This insured that elections would be fair. Secret ballots and restricted campaigning near polling booths were part of the reforms. • Major political parties had to hold primary elections so individuals would know the party’s official candidate.
The Progressive Movement • Women Suffrage • Women wanted the right to vote and not be represented by men. People fought for women to have equal rights. (for good and for bad) • 1918 in Texas, women got the right to vote in party primaries. They did this by making a deal to pledge support to Governor William Hobby if he would sign the bill allowing them to vote.
The Progressive Movement • Women Suffrage • The 19th amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution in 1920 allowing women to vote.
The Progressive Movement • Prohibition – 18th Amendment – meant no more alcohol. • People thought that men drinking at saloons were wasting money for their family. Church groups also supported the outlawing of alcohol.
The Progressive Movement • This law was resented by many and this started people making alcohol illegally. (moonshine) • This allowed mobsters like Al Capone to become famous and organized crime became a business.
African Americans Fight Discrimination The Jim Crow laws required segregation. Hotels, restaurants, and events were closed to African Americans. They had to sit in the back at theaters and buses. They had separate bathrooms, water fountains, and waiting rooms. African Americans lived in the poor parts of town.
African Americans Fight Discrimination • Racial unrest led to many riots. Blacks who were convicted of even minor crimes were lynched by white mobs. • A poll tax (fee for voting) kept out poor minorities
African Americans Fight Discrimination • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was created to protect African Americans.
Mexicans Americans Face Problems • Many Mexican American faced the same challenges as African Americans • Many Mexicans came to Texas to escape the Mexican Revolution of 1910 – 1920.