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Emergence and Growth Of Counselling Services. Gained momentum –early 20 th century With in six decades-emerged as a profession Historical development of counselling -four periods. Period-1. Psychoanalysis movement(1850-1900) 1879- psychological laboratory-Leipzig, Germany- Wihelm Wundt

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    1. Emergence and Growth Of Counselling Services • Gained momentum –early 20th century • With in six decades-emerged as a profession • Historical development of counselling-four periods

    2. Period-1 • Psychoanalysis movement(1850-1900) • 1879-psychological laboratory-Leipzig, Germany-Wihelm Wundt • 1883-G.Stanley Hall psychological laboratory • 1895-George Merril –first systematic programme-San Fransisco

    3. 1896-psychological clinic-Lightner Winner- University of Pennsylvania • 1898-Jesse .B. Davis –term counselling-Educational Career Counselling centre in Detroit

    4. 1899-President of Chicago University, William Rainey Harper-importance of guidance • 1909-J.B.Miner-freeclinic-mental development-University of Minnesota

    5. Period-2 • Guidance movement(1900-1930) • 1908-mental hygiene movement-clifford Beers-book….the mind that found itself • 1910-progressive education movement-John Dewey-how we think

    6. 1911-Rev.Elwood Worcester-use of psychological principles- pastrolcounselling • 1912-Mrs.Adolf Myers –the school of social work-case work and psychiatry

    7. National Vocational Guidance Association(NVGA)-------Vocational Guidance Movement-----voluntary efforts in educational, civic, social work

    8. Period-3 • Psychometric Movement(1930-1940) • Test of mental functions • Test of abilities , attitudes , interest • Guidance workers(?)---------to guide people

    9. Period -4 • Counselling movement(1940 onward):period after world war 2 • Counselling emerged as a science • 1942:Carl Rogers-book-counseling and psychotherapy • 1944-Act of Congreess-Army separation and classification and counselling programme • Initiated by United states employment counselling

    10. 1945-Uses –General Aptitude Test Battery(GATB) • 1954-first journal of counselling –Psychology • Counselling psychology established as a specialised field of psychology

    11. Approaches to counselling • Incorporated findings from: • Personality theory • Social psychology • Counselling psychology • Therapeutic counselling

    12. 1.Directive or authoritarian or psychoanalytic counselling • Psychoanalysis-theory of human personality • Deals with normal and abnormal behaviour • Major contributor? • Psychoanalysis relativity to therapies: • Object relations , Progoff’s intensive Journal Therapy, Jungian hypotherapy

    13. Psychoanalytic approach-personality -3 groups • ID • EGO • SUPER EGO

    14. ID: • Works on pleasure principle • Actions for the satisfaction of personal wants • EGO: • Works on logic or rationality • It has a contact with reality

    15. It control consciousness • Provides realistic and logical thinking • Moderates the desire for ID • SUPER EGO: • It represents conscience of the mind • Higher plane of ethical codes or ideals • Actions are developed by the moral code

    16. CONTROL: • Superego Ego Id • Unpleasant emotional feelings such as tension, conflict and anxiety

    17. Defence Mechanism--- that represents behavioral responses(Protection from threat)

    18. Counsellor’s role: • Act as an expert who facilitate or direct this restructuring • Talking therapy-analyses the root cause of behaviour • Assumption: • Client is helpless and unaware of all the problems

    19. Tools used: • Modern analysis---- • Free association Test, projective test, play therapy, dream analysis etc • Duration: • Modern analysts are using psychoanalytic technique for therapies of short span of time

    20. 2.Adlerian Therapy or Individual psychology • Individual psychology is often called Adlerian Therapy • Put forward –Alfred Adler • Assumptions: • Individuals are restricted –feeling of inferiority

    21. Sources : • Biological dependency • Image of self relationship to the universe • Organ inferiority • Eg: sexual abuse

    22. Counselling process • 1. Empathy relationship: • Client expresses problems with little interruptions • Therapist offers acceptance and understanding • 2.Information: • Focus to problem-antecedents-root causes-client role in family, workplace and society • Intelligence , psychological and interest test

    23. 3.Clarification: • Mistaken ideas and logic are corrected and fused with common sense • 4.Encouragement: • Reduces the feeling of inferiority • Felt impossible to possible

    24. 5.Interpretation and recognition: • Observes psychological movements(thinking , feelings and behavioural models) • Choice between right and wrong • 6.Knowing: • Allows to take control of himself

    25. 7.Missing experience: • Role-playing or guided imagery to eliminate • 8.Doing differently: • Insight and innovation mobilized to client

    26. 9.Reinforcement: • Client learned to focus not on self but on others • Reinforced through encouragement and support • 10.Community feeling: • It is created in the first stage • Develop a position of cooperation with others

    27. 11.Goal –redirection: • Client may treat therapist as positive or negative models • Therapists –keep high values • Eg: truth , beauty , justice • 12.Support and launching: • Counsellors act of motivation

    28. 3.Cognitive Approach • Assumption: • Focusing on current problems are more appropriate • Investigating root is unnecessary • Role of counsellor: • Establishing collaborative relationship

    29. Directive teaching(REALITY therapy-teaching, Rational Emotive Therapy-RET or REBT) • Encourage logical thinking • Short duration-treat anger, depression , anxiety

    30. Three forms of cognitive approach • A.Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy(REBT): • Albert Ellis • Make client aware of: • Negative and self defeating thoughts and emotions • B.Reality Therapy: • Human needs classified as-(sense of belonging,power ,freedom, fun recreation

    31. C.Transactional Analysis: • Child-set of behaviour from childhood • Parent-passed from individuals parents • Adult –individuals unique experience from childhood

    32. 4.Humanastic or Affective Approach • Carl Rogers • Assumptions : • Behaviour consistent with self concept-individuals satisfied only if they act in image suit them • Threat and defence mechanism: • If act in a manner inconsistent to “image”-threatened-defence mechanism

    33. Role of counsellor: • Effectively eliminate defence mechanism • Strengthen clients ability to face reality • Awareness regulate self control and regulation

    34. A. Empathise with the counselee: • Self-theory of Rogers based on “phenomenology” • phenomenology----what people perceive is their reality • Interpret a person’s behaviour can be done by understanding “phenomenological field”

    35. B. Help to see in congruence: • Close matching of awareness and experience • C. Help to see the whole picture: • Integrate behaviour feeling and thinking • Duration : • Short span of time

    36. 5.Behavioural Approach Assumptions: • Behaviour is conditioned-----primary learning comes from experience , behaviour changes when favourable condition exists • Behaviour is predictable----- individual reacts in a predictable way to any given situation or stimulus, depending on his/her learning

    37. Role of counsellor: • Adopt a directive role in initiating and directing therapeutic counselling • Takes roles of teacher or a coach • Sessions tend to be structured and action oriented

    38. Counselling process: • Characteristics---- • 1.know the client’s view of the problem: • Interaction with the client • Develop a common understanding of the perspective

    39. 2.set target behaviour: • Set an objective of achieving a change in the behavioural pattern • 3.choose treatment procedure: • Behaviour understand through theories of learning

    40. John D Krumboltz-4 learning procedure • A. Operant learning: • Facilitated by use of re-enforces at predetermined intervals • Forms of re-enforces :- gift, cash or intangibles such as approval or attention

    41. B. Initiative learning: • Encouraged through exposure to models of desired behaviour • C. Cognitive learning: • Instructing the client what to do , how to do

    42. D. Emotional learning: • Strengthened by substitution of acceptable emotional responses for un pleasant emotional reaction

    43. Techniques used: • Reflection , summarization and open-ended enquiries • Tools are homework, role playing, social modelling, desensitization

    44. 6.Holistic Approaches • Includes : • A. Existential therapy • B. Gestalt approach • C. Eclectic approach

    45. A. Existential therapy: • Based on science ‘of being’ • Existence is the prime driver of human life • Awareness of ‘being in the world’

    46. Define goals through choice making • Individuals make choice with or without awareness of choice restriction

    47. Assumptions: • Individuals live in a world that is not limited to environment • But must also include the human world created by an individual’s meaningful relationship

    48. Three modes of world: • Umwelt— ‘world around’-biological world-environment • Mitwelt--- ‘with world’-world of one’s fellow human being • Eigenwelt--- ‘own world’ the relationship to one’s self

    49. Role of counsellor: • Phenomenological world in which client exists and participates • Recognize outmoded ways of life