The Particle Theory. The Particle Theory. The Particle Theory explains how all matter ( liquid , solid , gas ) are structured and how they react under certain conditions. The Particle Theory consists of five statements. The Particle Theory. 1. All matter is made up of very small particles.
The Particle Theory explains how all matter (liquid, solid, gas) are structured and how they react under certain conditions.
The Particle Theory consists of five statements.
1. All matter is made up of very small particles.
2. There is space between particles.
Particles in a Gas
Particles in a Liquid
Particles in a Solid
3. All particles in a pure substance are the same.
A pure substance is a material made up of only one kind of extremely small particle.
Each pure substance has its own kind of particle, different in shape and size from the particles of other pure substances.
The white particles in this picture represent sugar, while the blue particles represent water.
4. The particles in matter are always in motion.
Looking at the website http://www.chem.perdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/states.html, will give you a visual representation on how quickly the states of matter move.
When particles are heated, or gain energy, they move faster and the spaces in between them expand in size.
When particles are cooled, or lose energy they move slower and the spaces in between them contract in size.
If the transfer of energy is quite dramatic, the state of matter changes.
The temperature of a liquid, solid or a gas refers to how fast its particles are moving. The faster the particles move, the higher the temperature.
5. Particles are attracted to each other.
A substance will dissolve
(the particles are broken down so small they are invisible to the naked eye), in another because the particles of each substance are attracted to each other.
This is what happens when sugar is dissolved in water.
The water particles are attracted to the sugar particles, making them dissolve.
In scientific terms, the sugar in this picture is the solute, (substance being dissolved) and the water is the solvent.
They mix to form a solution.
Solutes and solvents may take the form any of the three states of matter: gas liquid or solid.
This solution of water (solvent) and sugar (solute) is a homogeneous solution.
Water is often called the universal solvent because it can dissolve many particles.
A solution only forms when particles are attracted to each other, and the solute dissolves in the solvent.
When different parts of a mixture can be seen, it is called a heterogeneousor mechanical mixture.
Concrete is a mechanical mixture because its individual components can be seen.
When one substance will not dissolve in another, the substance is said to beinsoluble.
This is because the particles are not attracted to each other.
Oil and Water
Oil and water result in a mechanical or heterogeneous mixture.
The particles in each substance are not attracted to each other and therefore separate.
Oil and Water
The idea of particle attraction applies to many other combinations of substances.
It can explain why grass stains are difficult to get out of clothing.
Grass stains are caused by chlorophyll in the grass.
Particles of chlorophyll are more attracted to each other than water.
Chlorophyll is insoluble in water (universal solvent), but will dissolve in other solvents such as rubbing alcohol.