Biochemistry to Cells. Chapters 2 and 3. Anatomy is Structure, Physiology is function. Anatomy Study of internal and external structure i.e. structure of heart and blood flow . Physiology Study of how organisms perform specific functions i.e. how does the heart pump blood.
Chapters 2 and 3
Molecules composed of carbon and hydrogen molecules
Larger and more complex than inorganic molecules
Sugars and Starches
Monosaccharides – building blocks for all sugars
Split water to break down large molecules into small
i.e. digestive tract
Fats, oils and waxes
Most abundant organic compounds in the body
Structure of a protein is determined by sequence of amino acids
Enzymes are Proteins
Speed up chemical reactions in a cell by reducing the activation energy needed to start the reaction.
Enzymes control all life processes.
Enzyme shape determines function.
Shape of proteins can be altered by pH, temperature, or ion composition
Basic building block is a nucleotide.
ChromatinDNA wrapped around 8 histone proteins, creates a subunit called a nucleosome.How tightly packed the DNA is around the nucleosome and its tails helps determine gene expression
Transcription – rewriting of DNA into RNA; controlled by RNA polymeraseTranslation- changing the message of nucleic acids into an amino acid chain (protein)Which nucleic acid carries the code for the protein?
Role of mRNA:
RNAi (RNA interference)
Double stranded RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression (What?)
Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) attach to mRNA
The mRNA is then cut up by a number of enzymes (agronaute and dicer).
Why does this affect gene transcription?
What advantage doe s this give our cells?