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Biochemistry to Cells. Chapters 2 and 3. Anatomy is Structure, Physiology is function. Anatomy Study of internal and external structure i.e. structure of heart and blood flow . Physiology Study of how organisms perform specific functions i.e. how does the heart pump blood.

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biochemistry to cells

Biochemistry to Cells

Chapters 2 and 3

anatomy is structure physiology is function
Anatomy is Structure, Physiology is function
  • Anatomy
    • Study of internal and external structure
    • i.e. structure of heart and blood flow
  • Physiology
    • Study of how organisms perform specific functions
    • i.e. how does the heart pump blood
inorganic versus organic compounds
Inorganic versus Organic Compounds



Molecules composed of carbon and hydrogen molecules

Larger and more complex than inorganic molecules

  • Small molecules that generally do not contain carbon and hydrogen atoms.

Sugars and Starches

Monosaccharides – building blocks for all sugars

  • Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
  • Main source of energy for body
  • Monosaccharides
    • Glucose, fructose, galactose
  • Disaccharides
    • Lactose, maltose, sucrose
  • Polysaccharides
    • Glycogen, starch, cellulose
Dehydration Synthesis


Split water to break down large molecules into small

i.e. digestive tract

  • Remove water to build large molecules from smaller ones
  • i.e. making proteins from amino acids

Fats, oils and waxes

  • Contain large amounts of carbon and hydrogen in a 1:2 ratio, but very little oxygen.
  • Insoluble in water (hydophobic), makes a great barrier.
  • Energy reserves, insulates and cushions organs
  • Composed of fatty acid chains and glycerol





  • No double bonds, all carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen
  • Animal fats, are solid at room temperature
  • Large amounts in your diet increases the risk of heart disease
  • Unsaturated
  • Contain at least one double bond
  • Most Plant oils, liquid at room temperature
  • Triglycerides are the most common fats in body.
phospholipids how is structure related to function
PhospholipidsHow is structure related to function?
  • Consists of a glycerol and two fatty acid chains linked to a phosphate group (PO4)
  • The phosphate group is attracted to water (hydrophilic), Why?
  • The fatty acid chains are hydrophobic.
  • Make up all cell membranes

Most abundant organic compounds in the body

  • Composed of amino acids, 20 different amino acids
  • Structure of an amino acid
    • Amino group
    • H
    • Carboxyl group
    • R (remaining), varies from one amino acid to another
  • Peptide bond joins two amino acids together
  • The structure of the R group makes the amino acids different from each other.
  • The R groups between the different amino acids help create the proteins shape.
  • Folds and bonds form creating distinct protein shapes
shape determines function
Shape Determines Function

Structure of a protein is determined by sequence of amino acids

  • Proteins are made at the _________ and sent to the ____________ to be packaged into their specific shape.
  • Small differences can have large effects… mutations
protein function
Protein Function
  • Support: provide structure to cells and organs
  • Movement: contractile proteins in muscles
  • Transport: carrier protein found in cell membranes
  • Metabolic Regulation: Enzymes speed up chemical reactions
  • Coordination and Control: Protein hormones influence the chemical reactions in cells
  • Defense: keratin in the skin, antibodies, clotting proteins
enzyme function
Enzyme Function

Enzymes are Proteins

Speed up chemical reactions in a cell by reducing the activation energy needed to start the reaction.

Enzymes control all life processes.

Enzyme shape determines function.

Shape of proteins can be altered by pH, temperature, or ion composition

enzyme function1
Enzyme Function
  • Substrate – reactant that enzyme affects
  • Active site – region on enzyme that substrate attaches to.
    • Lock and Key arrangement
  • Each enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction (specificity)
nucleic acids dna and rna
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

Basic building block is a nucleotide.

Structural similarities:

Structural differences:


ChromatinDNA wrapped around 8 histone proteins, creates a subunit called a nucleosome.How tightly packed the DNA is around the nucleosome and its tails helps determine gene expression

two types of chromatin
Two Types of Chromatin




Transcription – rewriting of DNA into RNA; controlled by RNA polymeraseTranslation- changing the message of nucleic acids into an amino acid chain (protein)Which nucleic acid carries the code for the protein?

translation occurs in the ribosome
Translation- occurs in the ribosome

Role of mRNA:





how is gene expression controlled in eukaryotic cells
How is gene expression controlled in Eukaryotic cells?


RNAi (RNA interference)

Double stranded RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression (What?)

Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) attach to mRNA

The mRNA is then cut up by a number of enzymes (agronaute and dicer).

Why does this affect gene transcription?

What advantage doe s this give our cells?

  • Epigenetics – study of changes in gene expression caused by histone modification and DNA methylation other than changes in the DNA sequence (mutations)
  • Regulates gene expression w/o changing the DNA
  • Changes have been shown to be heritable.
ATP – energy currency for cell
  • ATP → ADP + P
  • Energy is released