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Introduction to Biochemistry. Hey, I’ve got a bipolar disorder and have a double personality. I’m very positive and negative at the same time!. Biochemistry: The unique properties of water. δ + .

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slide2

Hey, I’ve got a bipolar disorder and have a double personality. I’m very positive and negative at the same time!

Biochemistry: The unique properties of water

δ +

Hydrogen bonding is when the partial + charge on Hydrogen is attracted to the partial – charge of another compound.

δ +

δ -

Water molecules have polar covalent bonds.

Water is attracted to other through relatively weak Hydrogen bonds.

slide3

Biochemistry: The unique properties of water

Can water form ions?

Yes, at a very small rate (1 out of 500,000,000!)

+

-

H+

+

OH-

H2O

How would you quantify (count) this ionic disassociation?

The pH scale

pH

The “power of Hydrogen” scale

slide4

[H+] >[OH-]

Stomach Acid, lemon juice

Increasingly Acidic 

Vinegar, cola

Tomato juice

Black coffee; Rainwater

Urine

[H+] = [OH-]

Neutral

Pure water; Human blood

Seawater

Milk of magnesia

 Increasingly Basic

Household ammonia

[H+] <[OH-]

Household bleach

Oven cleaner

besides water what elements and compounds are essential to life

H

O

O

O

O

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

Organic Compounds: An Overview

Besides water, what elements and compounds are essential to life?

Organic compounds

  • Mostly contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur*

Carbon

C

C

C

C

C

C

carbon the element of life

C

C

C

C

C

C

HO

H

HO

OH

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

OH

Carbon = The element of life!

a. Carbon’s Valence has ____ electrons

b. Can bond with ____ elements

c. Can form chains, rings, branches, & isomers

4

4

slide7

Organic Compounds: Carbohydrates

Can you believe that each of your cells contains about 2 meters of me?

Hurry up, Lipids! You should have more energy stored up than this!

Organic compounds (continued…)

  • Four categories of organic compounds:
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
  • All formed and separated in similar ways
    • Formation (Polymerization): Dehydration Synthesis
    • Separation: Hydrolysis

Hi there! My name is Polly Peptide.

Hey Sugar, I sure am happy that you’re a Carbohydrate like me.

Awww, how sweet!

Does this bond structure make me look fat?

polymerization

Bonding: Polymerization

Polymerization
  • Polymerization (definition):
    • Forming of large organic macromolecules by the joining of smaller repeating units called monomers
dehydration synthesis
Dehydration Synthesis is the removal of a water molecule to form a new bond.

Bonding: Polymerization: Dehydration Synthesis

Dehydration Synthesis

1

2

3

HO

HO

H

H

Short Polymer

Monomer

H2O

Dehydration removes a water molecule forming a new bond

1

2

3

4

HO

H

hydrolysis

Bonding: Polymerization: Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis
  • Polymers are broken by adding water.
  • Literally, “Water Splitting”

H2O

1

2

3

4

HO

H

Hydrolysis adds a water molecule to break a bond

1

2

3

HO

H

HO

H

Monomer

Short Polymer