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INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY. Inorganic and Organic Compounds. Inorganic - not made by living things Organic - made by living things - carbon compounds - forms covalent bonds. Properties of Water. Great solvent called a universal solvent

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slide1

INTRODUCTION

TO

BIOCHEMISTRY

inorganic and organic compounds

Inorganic and Organic Compounds

Inorganic - not made by living things

Organic -made by living things

- carbon compounds

- forms covalent bonds

properties of water
Properties of Water
  • Great solvent called a universal solvent
  • Helps to digest food and remove waste products
  • Helps with transport in the body
slide4

THE UNIVERSAL SOLVENT: WATER

Solute- dissolved substance

Solvent- dissolves the solute

Dissolved substance

Dissolves the solute

water is a polar compound

p+

1H

1H

p+

Water is a Polar Compound
  • Hydrogen ends holds slightly positive charges
  • Oxygen end holds a slightly negative charge

(+)

(+)

(--)

slide7

pH SCAle

Low pH (<7) = Acid

7 = neutral

High pH (>7) = Base

ph in the body
pH in the body
  • Human blood- 7.4
  • Stomach juice- 2.0
slide9

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Organic compounds are carbon compounds, made by living things

slide10

glucose

amino acids

fat

Carbon is the Central Atom of Life.

slide11

To Understand the BIG, You’d Better Know

the LITTLE

(and how small and big are linked)

slide12

Rules of the Game

Macromolecules are built by linking a set of building blocks (monomers) together into long chains (a polymer).

Monomers – basic units that repeats over and over in organic compounds

Each hexagon is this figure is a monomer, building blocks linked together to form a polymer.

slide13

Molecules of Life

Four Major Classes of Biological Molecules

How do you build a cell?

Start with water, add lots of small carbon-containing molecules and …….

four types of organic compounds common names
FOUR TYPES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDSCommon names
  • CARBOHYDRATES
    • SUGARS AND STARCHES
  • LIPIDS
    • FATS, OILS, AND WAXES
  • PROTEINS
  • NUCLEIC ACIDS
    • DNA AND RNA (GENETIC MATERIAL)
carbohydrates
CARBOHYDRATES
  • ELEMENTS – C, H AND O
  • MONOMER = MONOSACCHARIDE
  • MAIN FUNCTION
    • QUICK ENERGY
    • SOME STORAGE
      • Animals- glycogen
      • Plants- starch
carbohydrates1
CARBOHYDRATES

Other facts

2:1 ratio of Hydrogen to Oxygen

One sugar C6H12O6 monosaccharide

Two sugars C12H22O11 disaccharide

Many sugars- polysaccharide

lipids
LIPIDS
  • ELEMENTS: C, H and O
  • MONOMER = Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids
  • MAIN FUNCTION
    • Storage
    • Energy reserves
    • Cell membranes
  • Other facts
    • Insoluble in water
    • Shaped like an elongated E

FA

Glycerol

FA

FA

lipids1
LIPIDS
  • Other facts
    • Insoluble in water
    • Shaped like an elongated E
proteins
PROTEINS
  • ELEMENTS: C, H, O and N
  • MONOMER: Amino Acids
  • FUNCTIONS
    • Basic building blocks of living material
    • Hair, Muscles, Fingernails
    • Enzymes – speed up chemical reactions
    • Transport in cell
proteins1
PROTEINS
  • 20 different Amino acids
  • Each amino acid has a different R- or Residual group
proteins2
PROTEINS
  • Forms peptide bonds between amino acids
  • 1 amino acid- peptide
  • 2 amino acids- dipeptide
  • Many amino acids- polypeptide
nucleic acids
NUCLEIC ACIDS
  • ELEMENTS: C, H, O, N and P
  • MONOMER: Nucleotide
  • FUNCTIONS:
    • DNA and RNA
    • Genetic material
    • Controls the cells activities
slide23

DNA- carries the genetic code

RNA- carries out the instructions

slide24

Types of Reactions

Reactants- substances required for a reaction, the starting materials

Products- substances that are made during a reaction

Reactants

Products

condensation dehydration reactions
CONDENSATION / DEHYDRATION REACTIONS
  • CONDENSATION REACTIONS (DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS REACTIONS)
    • Joining molecules together by removing water (-H and –OH are removed to make a water molecule)
  • C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 C12H22O11 + H2O

GLUCOSE GLUCOSE MALTOSE WATER

reactions of biological compounds
REACTIONS OF BIOLOGICAL COMPOUNDS
  • HYDROLYSIS REACTIONS
    • Water is added to break apart molecules
  • C12H22O11 + H2O C6H12O6 + C6H12O6

MALTOSE WATER GLUCOSE GLUCOSE

enzymes
ENZYMES
  • CATALYSTS FOR BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS- speeds up a reaction
  • MOST ARE PROTEINS
  • LOWER THE ACTIVATION ENERGY NEEDED TO CARRY OUT A REACTION
  • INCREASES THE RATE OF REACTIONS
enzyme action lock key model
ENZYME ACTION: LOCK & KEY MODEL
  • SUBSTRATE- SUBSTANCE AN ENZYME ACTS UPON
  • ACTIVE SITE- REGION WHERE SUBSTRATE AND ENZYME BONDS TOGETHER
  • PRODUCT IS RELEASED
  • ENZYME IS UNCHANGED
enzyme function
ENZYME FUNCTION

(Substrate)

Active Site

enzyme activity
Enzyme Activity
  • http://www.lpscience.fatcow.com/jwanamaker/animations/Enzyme%20activity.html
  • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_enzymes_work.html
  • http://www.biotopics.co.uk/other/enzyme.html
factors affecting enzyme action
FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME ACTION
  • TEMPERATURE
    • LITTLE ACTIVITY AT LOW TEMPS
    • RATE INCREASES WITH TEMPERATURE
    • MOST ACTIVE TEMP IN HUMANS (37ºC)
    • ACTIVITY LOST WITH DENATURATION AT HIGH TEMPERATURE
  • pH
  • Concentration of substrate/enzyme
temperature affecting enzyme action
TEMPERATURE AFFECTING ENZYME ACTION

OPTIMUM TEMP

RATE OF REACTION

LOW HIGH

TEMPERATURE