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Peer Planner Study for Quiz on Chpts 7-8 . Reader Response 8…. Write down on a piece of paper some ways in which you feel like an outsider having trouble connecting with others Or

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reader response 8

Peer Planner

Study for Quiz on Chpts 7-8

Reader Response 8…
  • Write down on a piece of paper some ways in which you feel like an outsider having trouble connecting with others


  • Define what respect looks like to you in a classroom of diverse students. Be clear and specific and provide an example for each.
    • Respect for the instructor
    • Respect for other students
    • Respect for yourself and behavior
    • Respect for the subject
    • Respect for your homework
    • Respect for your class work
  • Family Feud!
  • Get into “families” of 4-5 students
  • Each of the 4 questions have 4-5 answers.
  • Write down the answers on your “Family” paper (one per group)
successfully intelligent people
“Successfully intelligent people…

question assumptions and encourage others to do so. We all tend to have assumptions about the way things are or should be…but creatively intelligent people question many assumptions that others accept, eventually leading others to question those assumptions as well.”

Robert Sternberg

real questions practical answers
Real Questions, Practical Answers

How can I adjust to a new society and connect to people in

my community?

how can you develop cultural competence pg 282
How Can You Develop Cultural Competence? ---- Pg 282
  • Value Diversity
  • Identify and Evaluate Personal Perceptions and Attitudes
  • Be Aware of Opportunities and Challenges That Occur When Cultures Interact
  • Build Cultural Knowledge
  • Adapt to Diverse Cultures
diversity means
Diversity means…
  • living, working, and studying with people from different backgrounds.
  • becoming aware of different perspectives and different ways of doing things.
  • socializing with and perhaps marrying people from other cultures.
diversity influences our
Diversity influences our…
  • learning and communication styles
  • sexual orientation or marital status
  • education or socio-economic status
  • levels of ability or disability
  • different values
  • different talents and skills
  • successful intelligence abilities
  • religious preferences
expand your perception of diversity pg 286
Expand Your Perception of Diversity – pg 286
  • Brainstorm 10 words/phrases that describe YOU (focus on characteristics others cannot SEE, for example: I am Swiss).
  • Partner w/ a classmate you do not know well. Write down characteristics you see (know, or can guess) about him/her
  • Talk w/ your classmate about all of the lists
  • Write: what did you learn about your classmate? Was your impression of them accurate?
  • Write what you wish people would focus on about you
build cultural knowledge
Build Cultural Knowledge
  • Read things that expose you to different perspectives
  • Ask questions of all kinds of people
  • Observe how people behave
  • Travel internationally to unfamiliar places
  • Travel locally to encounter a variety of people in your community
  • Build friendships with students and coworkers

Pg 287

thinking on prejudgment
Thinking on Prejudgment
  • after doing that, list possible causes
    • family culture
    • fear of differences
    • experiences
  • Groups of 4-5 people answer this question on a separate piece of paper:
  • "why do people judge others before they know anything about them?
identify evaluate pg 284
Identify & Evaluate pg 284
  • Prejudice
    • Preconceived judgment or opinion formed without grounds or sufficient knowledge
      • Influence of family and culture
      • Fear of differences
      • experience
  • Stereotypes
    • Standardized mental picture that represents an oversimplified opinion or uncritical judgment
      • Desire for patterns and logic
      • Media influences
      • laziness
personal difference assessment
Personal Difference Assessment
  • Read the handout.
  • Answer at least one of the questions
The tough-minded person always examines the facts before he reaches conclusions: In short, he postjudges.

The tender-minded person reaches conclusions before he has examined the first fact; in short, he prejudges and is prejudiced…

There is little hope for us until we become tough minded enough to break loose from the shackles of prejudice, half-truths, and down-right ignorance.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

be aware of opportunities and challenges that occur when different cultures interact
Be aware of opportunities and challenges that occur when different cultures interact
  • Discrimination
  • Hate Crimes
  • Discussion: What are positives and negatives of cultural interaction?
build knowledge about other cultures
Build knowledge about other cultures
  • Positive Action - Address cause, not effect
  • Ten ways to Fight Hate
practical application
Practical Application
  • Read the handout: Case Study: What Would You Do?
  • Brainstorm on the back of the page to create solutions
adapt to diverse cultures
Adapt to Diverse Cultures
  • Look past external characteristics
  • Put yourself in other people’s shoes
  • Adjust to cultural differences
  • Help others in need
  • Stand up against prejudice, discrimination and hate
  • Recognize that people everywhere have the same basic needs

Pg 289

how can you communicate effectively
How Can You Communicate Effectively?
  • Adjust to Communication Styles
  • Know How to Give and Receive Criticism
  • Understand Body Language
  • Manage Conflict
  • Manage Anger
personality spectrum communication styles what style are you refer back to pg 76
Personality Spectrum Communication StylesWhat style are you? Refer back to pg 76

Thinker-Dominant Communicators…

…focus on facts and logic

Organizer-Dominant Communicators…

…focus on structure and completeness

Giver-Dominant Communicators…

…focus on concern for others

Adventurer-Dominant Communicators…

…focus on the present

communication styles what style are you refer to pg 76
Communication StylesWhat style are you? Refer to pg 76
  • Get into groups with people of other communication styles.
  • Discuss ways you can improve communication when interacting with people who tend to communicate differently.
  • Do you Prefer to communicate with people of the same style?
  • Do you like the communication process with people of different styles?
  • What suggestions do you have for more effective communication?
communication styles what style are you refer to pg 761
Communication StylesWhat style are you? Refer to pg 76
  • Divide into groups of dominant communication styles.
    • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of their primary communication type.
  • Divide into new groups, each of which contains at least one of each of the four communication styles.
    • Discuss ways they can improve communication when interacting with people who tend to communicate differently.
  • Do you Prefer to communicate with people of the same style?
  • Do you like the communication process with people of different styles?
  • What are the challenges you face?
  • What suggestions do you have for more effective communication?
to communicate effectively
To communicate effectively…
  • Listen well.
  • Adjust your style to your audience.
  • Be comfortable with giving and receiving criticism.
  • Communicate with cultural competence.
un constructive criticism pg 293
(Un-)Constructive Criticism (Pg 293)
  • What is constructive criticism?
  • What is unconstructive criticism?
  • What are the strategies to constructive criticism?
  • (Criticize the behavior, defend the problematic behavior specifically)
  • Constructive

Try clipping your hair back so that you don’t play with it so much.

You may try using a visual aid to remind yourself where you are in your speech and give a visual aid.

  • Unconstructive

You looked like a ditz playing with your hair like that.


Stop saying “uh” so much!

body language pg 294
Body Language (pg 294)
  • 4 students at the front of the room
  • Who would you want to hire?
  • Impressions?
passive aggressive or assertive pg 295
Passive, Aggressive or Assertive. (pg 295)


Lacking will or energy, not addressing the issue


Focuses too heavily on your needs, demanding – sometimes loudly.


Being assertive strikes the right balance. States fact and opinions in an unemotional way. Requests respectfully. - Boring video (RA’s) (Passive, Aggressive, Assertive) – passive aggressiveness – Passive Aggressive Video more activities

try out each method role play
Try out each method: Role Play

Joe and Charlie have been having a conflict over a library book that Joe borrowed from Charlie. When Charlie put the book in his locker to return it to Joe, it was stolen. Joe wants his book back.

  • Passive
  • Aggressive
  • Assertive
conflict resolution pg 296
Conflict Resolution (pg 296)

Aggressive, Passive, or Assertive?

  • Get a partner.

Take turns convincing each other to get:(partner being convinced should be considerate, but not immediately agree)

    • A chance to rewrite a paper for a better grade
    • A refund on an appliance that didn’t work properly
    • My partner to start doing more for the family
    • My father to let me make my own decisions about my major
    • A raise and promotion at work

After each attempt, determine if the attempt was 1)aggressive, 2) passive, or 3) assertive.

  • Which was most effective?
conflict prevention strategies pg 295
Conflict Prevention Strategies (pg 295)

Strategy: Send “I” messages

How it helps: Highlights the effect the actions have on you rather than the actions or the person involved – I message vs You message

Strategy: Be assertive

How it helps: Being passive takes the focus off your needs. Being aggressive focuses too heavily on your needs. Being assertive strikes the right balance.

how do you make the most of personal relationships
How Do You Make the Most of Personal Relationships?
  • Use Positive Relationship Strategies
  • Manage Communication Technology
  • Avoid Destructive Relationships
  • Choose Communities that Enhance Your Life
positive relationship strategies
Positive Relationship Strategies
  • Prioritize personal relationships
  • Spend time with people you respect and admire
  • If you want a friend, be a friend
  • Work through tensions
  • Take risks
  • Find a pattern that suits you
  • If a relationship fails, find ways to cope
thinking successfully about relating to others
Thinking Successfully About Relating to Others
  • Analytical thinking – Assess the underlying facts and assumptions that cause prejudice. Understand how and when communication, especially across cultures, can break down.
  • Creative thinking – See new ways of viewing diversity and its values. Think outside the box to resolve conflict, communicate, and deal with personal relationship issues.
  • Practical thinking – Learn from experiences in relating to others, be sensitive when relating to others, adapt to communication styles, recognize warning signs with negative communication patterns or damaging relationships.

The Arabic wordtaraadin includes the concept of “compromise”but contains another level of meaning. Specifically, it refers to a win-win solution to a problem, an agreement that brings positive effects to everyone involved.

How would you apply this word to your life?

“We cannot live for ourselves alone. Our lives are connected by a thousand invisible threads, and along these sympathetic fibers, our actions run as causes and return to us as results.”

Herman Melville, Author

resume writing
Resume Writing
  • Collect everything you’ve done
  • Write down
    • Education (what HS? How many units/what classes @ college?)
    • Volunteer activities, community service
    • Jobs/positions you’ve held
    • Awards
    • Don’t think you can make your jobs sound good? Look at the skills you have!
mock interview
Mock Interview
  • Prepare yourself for an interview.
  • Partner up
  • Review the Interview Guide
  • Role play
    • First one person is the interviewer, asking all of the questions, record answers and make their observations.
    • Once the first interviewer is complete, switch roles.
    • You will be awarded up to 100 points for this activity, based on your answers and attitude.
sections on a resume
Sections on a resume


  • Contact
  • Education
  • Experience


  • Honors, activities, outreach/volunteer
  • Skills
  • Objectives
  • References

Use action Verbs! Recorded, Prepared, Explained, Assisted, Developed

how to write a resume

Presentation written By


Texas A&M

a resume is
  • A marketing piece, an advertisement, for your unique set of skills/abilities/experience.
  • A tool that you use to gain an interview.
  • A fluid and changing document which must be personalized and targeted.
  • A billboard. It is not going to be possible to list every single item of interest about yourself in this document - you need to identify what will be of interest to your target audience and highlight that information.
what will a resume do for me
What Will a Resume Do For Me?
  • Enable you to assess your strengths, skills, abilities and experience - thereby preparing you for the interview process
  • Act as a reminder of you to the employer/interviewer after you're done interviewing
  • Be a basis for the interviewer to justify your hiring
  • The ultimate goal of a resume is to gain you an interview!
are there any absolute rules of resume writing
Are There Any Absolute Rules of Resume Writing?
  • Yes, but only a few! Almost every rule you have ever heard can be broken, if you have a very good reason.   Some rules, however, are absolutes, including:
  • No typing errors
  • No errors in spelling
  • No lying or grandiose embellishments
are there any absolute rules of resume writing1
Are There Any Absolute Rules of Resume Writing?
  • No negative information should be included
  • Include only relevant information
  • Never be more than two pages long (see Curriculum Vitae for Educational resumes)
how long should my resume be
How long should my Resume be?
  • 1-page, this is not an absolute rule,
    • IF you have the right combination of experience and education.
  • Long enough to detail what you have to offer a potential employer, BUT short enough to entice that employer to want to know more (that is, invite you for an interview.) 
  • As a general guideline, you should keep your resume to one page until you have 5-10 years of experience, then go to two.
  • If you cannot fill two entire pages with an appropriate amount of “white space”, you should condense it to one page.
white space draws the eye to key points
White Space: draws the eye to key points
  • Too much
  • Not Enough

Just about right, maybe make the name larger, though

will i have more than one version of my resume
Will I Have More Than One Version of My Resume?
  • YES!
  • Employers today want to know what you can do for them, so it is imperative that you create a targeted resume each time you apply for an opportunity.
  • You will also develop a 'generic' resume to use in online databases, such as ours.
  • You may also need a scan able or web-based resume, depending on your field; more on these later.
are there different styles of resumes
Are There Different Styles of Resumes?
  • Yes, there are three resumes styles. The chronological and functional styles have been around for a long time.
  • Employers today are requesting the targeted style.
  • Click on the resume type to see an example.
  • This workshop focuses on developing a targeted resume. We are not recommending that you follow these examples.
  • It is important that your resume be unique
which style is recommended for college students
Which Style is Recommended for College Students?
  • Texas A&M- University Kingsville Career & Counseling Services recommends doing a TARGETED resume, although some circumstances dictate a more generic approach.

Types of Resume

  • Chronological
  • Functional
  • Targeted
how do i get started
How Do I Get Started?
  • Get a job announcement or description for the job, or type of job, you are seeking, if possible.
  • Make a list of all co-curricular activities you are involved in (clubs, Greek organizations, honor organizations, major-specific fraternities, intramurals, etc.)
  • Compile a list of all community activities of which you are a part (PTA, church committees, social clubs, volunteer work, etc.)
  • Gather together job descriptions from your past positions. If you haven’t saved copies of these, you should from now on!
  • List what things friends/relatives/peers come to you for help with. This may assist you in identifying strengths you would not otherwise recognize in yourself.
what must i have on my resume
What Must I Have on My Resume?
  • Name
  •  Address
  •  Phone number
  • Education
  •  Profile or Summary of Qualifications
  •  Experience
what else can be included on my resume
What Else Can Be Included on My Resume?
  • Licenses/Certifications
  • Accomplishments/Achievements
  • Affiliations/Memberships
  • Activities and Honors
what should never be on my resume
What Should Never Be on My Resume?
  • Height, weight, age, date of birth, place of birth, marital status, sex, race, health (some of these items may be necessary on an International Resume) or social security number (NEVER!) 
  • The word "Resume" at the top! 
  • Any statement that begins with "I" or "My" 
  • Reasons for leaving previous job(s) 
  • Picture of yourself 
  • Salary Information for previous positions or Salary Expectations 
  • Reference names
  • Religion, church affiliations, political affiliations
how do i list my name
How Do I List My Name?
  • Use your "go-by" name. That is, if everyone knows you by a nickname or your middle name, use it.
  • For example, Katherine Elaine Johnson – if everyone calls you Kate – just put KATE JOHNSON on the top of your resume, if everyone calls you Elaine – use ELAINE JOHNSON or K. ELAINE JOHNSON.
  • List any professional credentials (M.D., CPA, Ph.D.) that are appropriate for the job sought.
phone numbers or email addresses
Phone Numbers or Email addresses?
  • List your current phone (and permanent phone if you plan to move soon) . Make sure you have a professional sounding message on it!
  • Mobile phone #s? Be aware that you could be caught at the gym or putting gas in your car. If you are in a situation that could compromise your professional appearance, let the call go to voicemail and call back.
  • Email address MUST be professional. addresses like, or would not be appropriate! Use common sense.
do i need an objective
Do I need an OBJECTIVE?
  • IF YOU WANT IT. Some say “YES, it tells the reader why you are sending the resume, i.e., what position or type of position you are seeking.”
  • does not need to be a complete sentence
  • like the thesis statement of your resume. Everything you include after it should support it!
  • Ideally target your objective to include job title desired, position level, field, industry, and/or company name. If you are sending this resume for a specific position at a specific company - SAY IT HERE!
  • Use the objective to tell what you can do for the company, NOT what you want the company to do for you… no statements like: to gain valuable experience, etc.
  • Avoid the words "entry level" ~ we recommend "professional" instead.
  • All post-secondary institutions from which you (a) have a degree or (b) expect to receive a degree
  • College name, city, and state
  • Major - be sure to get the exact name of your degree and list it here! If you don’t know, check your degree plan or check with your advisor or dean’s office.
  • Graduation date (or expected graduation): Month/Year

Should I put my GPA on my resume?

  • Yes, if it is 3.0 or higher
  • If your overall GPA is lower than 3.0, but your GPA within your major is 3.0 or above, you can isolate your major GPA.
  • If you list your GPA for one degree, you must list it for all.

Licenses and Certifications – Do I include them?

  • Yes, if they are relevant to the job you are seeking. Otherwise, no.
does coursework belong on my resume
Does Coursework Belong on my Resume? 
  • Only if you are seeking a co-op or intern position and certain disciplines: check with your PD/Advisor
    • Section: “Education” or “Related Courses”.
  • If you took a course (or courses) that other students with your major would not take and it would be advantageous for a particular position, list it (probably under your qualifications area.)
what about high school
What About High School?
  • Don't include high school on your resume, as a college student, it is understood that you completed high school.
  • Exceptional activities and honors from high school may be included IF (1) the honor is one that very few receive (i.e., valedictorian, Eagle Scout, etc.) or (2) the award shows an early interest in your career
where do i list academic awards honors and recognition
Where do I list Academic Awards, Honors, and Recognition?
  • We suggest using the Honors and Activities section at the end of the resume.
summary of qualifications profile skills section http www onetonline org
Summary of Qualifications / Profile / Skills Section
  • Tailor this section to reflect what the employer is seeking, different positions will warrant that you create different qualifications sections.
    • NOT every single skill, experience, or attribute you possess here, focus on what you can do to successfully perform the job.
  • These are brief statements of your experience, training and/or personal abilities which summarize your skills, abilities and experience.
  • Qualifications are more experience-based whereas Profiles are more personal attributes
  • Create a Action list from the tasks you performed at your job and volunteer experience. For phrasing and task lists, visit
developing a summary of qualifications skills profile step one
Developing a Summary of Qualifications / Skills / Profile - STEP ONE
  • Create a “Master” Resume that lists ALL of your jobs, your volunteer experiences, your skills, your awards/activities, etc.
  • Identify your strengths, skills, abilities gained through past employment or campus organization or classroom experience. 
  • List job duties, one at a time, starting each with an action verb
  • Each time you update your resume use theskills transferable to THIS position
    • Remember, typically an employer doesn't want to know what you did for someone else. S/he wants to know what you can do for his/her organization.
  • If there was a result (an accomplishment) related to the job duty, put it in.
developing a summary of qualifications skills profile step two
Developing a Summary of Qualifications / Skills / Profile - STEP TWO
  • Identify what the employer needs
    • Reading the job description and/or position vacancy announcement. Look at job duties, position requirements and preferences, desired traits, knowledge/skills/abilities (also called KSAs on governmental announcements), etc.
  • Employer Skills Match - develop your Qualifications or Skills section by matching up what the employer needs with what you can provide.
  • Subheadings can be used, if appropriate, i.e., computer skills, customer service skills, etc.
  • Note that "Qualifications" or "Skills" are more experience-based or quantifiable whereas "Profile statements" are more personal attributes.
how do i list jobs within the experience section
How Do I List Jobs Within the Experience Section?
  • Reverse chronological order
    • that is, your most recent job is listed first
  • Include name of company, city and state.
    • Do not list street addresses, supervisors, telephone numbers or reason for leaving.
  • Dates of employment are required.
    • Be sure to include month (or term) and year, i.e., Fall 2004 or June 2003-present.
  • There is no rule about which jobs you must include.
    • You might list every job you've ever held or you might just list your last 3 positions.
  • Option: only include the relevant positions you've had
    • name the section Related Experience orRelevant WorkHistory or something similar.
how do i list jobs within the experience section1
How Do I List Jobs Within the Experience Section?
  • Option: isolate the related experience (including internships) in one section (titled Related Experience or Internships or ??)
    • then follow with the unrelated (but still valuable) experience in a Work History section.
  • List a job title so the employer has an idea of the work you performed.
    • If you didn’t have an official title, choose one that best describes what you actually did at this job.
  • Typically job duties should not be included here unless they are highly relevant to your objective.
    • Even then do not include duties which are Implied by your job title or alluded to in the Summary of Qualifications or a Profile section. However, job accomplishments SHOULD be listed as bullet statements under each position as applicable.
where do i put my activities and honors
Where Do I Put My Activities and Honors?
  • After your Employment History (unless you’ve had few/no jobs)
  • Include scholarships, honors, organizations, and memberships.
  • Community work, volunteer work, is also appropriate to list here.
  • Don't have to include everything you've been involved with
    • Keep your goal in mind (getting that interview) and give enough information to allow the reader (i.e., potential employer) what s/he needs to make that decision.
  • Remember, don’t include anything from before college unless it is truly an exceptional feat. 
  • Rank these items from 'most impressive' or 'most relevant' to 'least impressive' or 'least relevant' as it relates to your job target OR chronologically.
  • Name this section what it is. If it is all community work – Community Involvement – would be a good name; if it is all clubs and organizations – call it Activities; if it is all honors – call it Honors.
are there activities that i shouldn t list
Are There Activities That I Shouldn’t List?
  • Activities that are controversial.
    • political affiliated groups, certain volunteer work, and/or church activities.
  • IF that activity or membership is SO important to you that you would not want to work somewhere that it wasn’t ‘ok’ then include it on the resume, but
  • IF you are more interested in the opportunity and would just as soon wait to let them know that you are a Democrat or a Baptist, leave it off or list it generically, for example: Sunday School Teacher
hobbies interests references
  • Don’t list hobbies or interests unless they are:
    • (1) organized, i.e., you belong to a club or
    • (2) relevant to the type of position you are seeking
  • Reference names don’t go on the resume itself.
    • Separate document, using the same header as on resume.Then list the reference names and contact information in block (envelope) style.
  • Do not send to employer unless they request it.
  • 3-5 references.
    • have direct knowledge of your job abilities (supervisor, etc.) or a professor who teaches a major-related class.
  • Ask the references permission before you use them.
    • Also ask them if they will give you a good reference. You don’t want to list folks who won’t sing your praises! Make sure to ask where they would like to be contacted, i.e., home or work and get the correct contact information for each person. Afterward, follow up with your references by sending them a copy of your completed resume. This will help them if/when they get a call on you.
  • Be sure to take copies of your references to all interviews. Most employers will request them at that time.
when why do i need a cover letter
When & Why Do I Need a Cover Letter?
  • Acts as an introduction for your resume.
  • Stands as a sample of your writing skills
  • If you are sending your resume via email - the cover letter is the email message itself. Then attach the resume following the employer's instructions (i.e., MSWord document, PDF, text document, etc.)
i need my resume to distinguish me from everyone else how do i do that
I Need My Resume to Distinguish Me From Everyone Else, How Do I Do That?
  • Answer the question, "Why am I more qualified than the next guy?" Then develop your resume to reflect that.
  • DON’T try to distinguish yourself by fancy fonts, clipart or non-traditional papers. That is not the interest you want to capture!
  • Make your resume uniquely yours with the information, not the graphics/style/colors
what is focus in a resume and why should mine be sharp
What Is Focus In a Resume and Why Should Mine Be Sharp? 
  • Average employer looks at a Resume for 2-5 seconds before deciding to overlook it or look it over.
  • Needs to be
  • Easy to read
  • Easy to spot the Name, Education, Experience (or skills)
  • Appropriate amount of white space.
what are the type design details i most need to know and follow
What Are the Type/Design Details I Most Need to Know and Follow?
  • Use bold, italics, different font sizes, upper-case and small capitals lettering
  • Font 10 & 12 pt. Use: Times New Roman, Arial, Bookman, Trebuchet, Lucida Sans, Garamond, Verdana or Courier.  No more than 2 fonts.
  • Use white space, but also spread out your information in an aesthetically pleasing way.
  • Use bullets to draw the reader’s eye. But don’t bullet everything!
  • Be consistent with headings (size, boldness, etc.) and body text (indented, not indented, tabs right-justified, tabs left-justified, etc.)
what about paper
What About Paper? 
  • Use resume paper. This can be purchased by the sheet at a print shop or by the box at any office supply or discount store.
  • Don’t get fancy – plain white or off-white (cream, ecru, etc.) is your best bet.
  • Avoid any bordered or themed paper. You want the attention on your resume contentnot on it’s vehicle!
what about mailing
What About Mailing? 
  • Don’t fold and stuff your resume in an envelope (even the nice ones you can buy to match your resume paper!)
  • Buy envelopes that are the same size as your resume and slip your cover letter on top, then your resume. Type an address label and return address label (or stamp if you have it) and mail flat.
chpt 7 writing for a purpose
Chpt 7: Writing for a Purpose
  • Form into groups
  • Each group will choose a topic (or present one of your own!)

 Tooth brushing

 Ice cream

 Automated teller machines (ATMs)

 Sleep deprivation

  • ½ of your group members will write a persuasive the other ½ of your group members will write an informative skit/speech about your topic
what is the writing process
What Is the Writing Process?





the four stages of the writing process
The Four Stages of the Writing Process
  • Planning – Brainstorming, Free-writing, Journalists’ Questions, Research, Thesis & Outline
  • Drafting – Introduction, Main Ideas (Body), Supporting Evidence, Conclusion
  • Revising– Step back, take another look, be more objective
  • Editing– Correcting errors - everyone must do this!
write a thesis statement
Write a thesis statement

This is the CENTRAL MESSAGE you want to communicate!

State your subject and your point of view

It should reflect your writing purpose: inform or persuade?

It should be appropriate for the audience: the readers.

planning your essay
Planning your essay

Evidence Gathering Sheet

Determine topic

Determine purpose

Combine the two to create THESIS

Give REASONS youthink that to be true

Each reason becomesa topic sentence

essay planning part 2
Essay planning part 2

Take each one of your“Reasons” from the topic starter

Develop each onemore fully into a para.With 2 examples

  • Write down thoughts

related to the topic

  • Organize the ideas

into categories

organizing the body of a paper
Organizing the Body of a Paper
  • By Time – in order or reverse order
  • By Importance – Most important to least important or reverse
  • By Problem & Solution – Straightforward!
  • By Argument – present both sides; make your own conclusion at the end
  • By Cause & Effect – how events, ideas, or situations caused subsequent events
  • By Comparisons – How events, people, situations, and ideas are the same (hint: find similes and metaphors)

For more ideas, take a look at Key 8.5

avoiding plagiarism by the way we use turnitin com here
Avoiding Plagiarism by the way.. We use here!

Plagiarism is the act of using someone else’s

exact words, figures, unique approach, or specific

reasoning without giving credit.

Some ways to avoid plagiarism include:

  • Make sources notes as you go.
  • Learn the difference between a quotation and a paraphrase.
  • Use a citation even from an acceptable paraphrase.
  • Understand that lifting material off the Internet is plagiarism.

Take a Look at Key 8.6 for an example

citing your sources
Citing your Sources
  • Cite all mentions of another author’s original ideas, statistics, studies, borrowed concepts & phrases, images, quoted material, and tables.
  • You do not have to cite facts which are commonly known by your audience and easily verified in reference sources.
    • Specifics are cited, general knowledge is not.
  • When in doubt, cite your source.
in text citations
In-text citations

(also known as ‘parenthetical documentation’)

In other words- in parentheses.

Your in-text citations work with your bibliography (works cited) page to identify where any quotes or ideas borrowed from another author came from.

“References in the text MUST clearly point to specific sources

in the list of works cited.”

- MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.

works cited page mla style citation
Works Cited page: MLA style citation

Include a “Works Cited” page listing all sources cited within the body of the paper.

Double-space, alphabetize the entries.

Do not indent first line, but do indent the following line(s) in an entry. (Called “hanging indent” in MSWord.)

works cited page
Works Cited page

Halio, Jay L., "Elizabethan Age." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Scholastic

Library Publishing, 2006. HF-L High School. 1 Apr 2006 <>.

Life in Elizabethan England. Summer 2005. 31 Mar 2006 <


Pressley, J. M. "An Encapsulated Biography." Shakespeare Resource Center,

February 10, 2005. 3 Mar 2006 <>.

Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1969.

Thomas, Heather. The Life in Times of Queen Elizabeth I. 23 Mar 2006. 1 Apr

2006 <>.

in text citations direct quote
In-text citations: Direct Quote


When Mercutio is wounded, he screams “A plague on both your houses!” referring to both the Capulets and the Montagues (Shakespeare 70).

The parenthetical notation (Shakespeare 70) identifies where the quote came from and refers to your bibliography page for further publication information.

Works Cited

Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1969.

direct quotes
Direct Quotes
  • Direct quotation:
    • Educators are cautioned that “…labels tend to stick, and few people go back later to document a shifting profile of intelligences” (Gardner 139).
  • Paraphrase with in-text citation:
    • Gardner explains that there are difficulties in labeling children with a type of intelligence, including the problem that labels may last, while the assessment may change (139).
which of these should be cited
Which of these should be cited?

On September 11, 2001, the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were attacked by hijacked airplanes.

Atta, Binalshibh, al Shehhi, and Jarrah had lived in Germany and were chosen over more established Al Qaeda members due to their exposure to the West and ability to speak English.

b was correct it is specific and not commonly known
B was correct: it is specific and not commonly known

How would you cite it? In-body:

Atta, Binalshibh, al Shehhi, and Jarrah had lived in Germany and were chosen over more established Al Qaeda members due to their exposure to the West and ability to speak English (National Commission 160).

Works Cited:

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission Report. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004.

which of these do you need to cite
Which of THESE do you need to cite?

A. “The science labs at East St. Louis High School are 30 to 50 years outdated.”

B. When public schools were segregated, conditions were not equal.

a it is very specific even w out quotes
A! It is very specific, even w/ out quotes!

How would you cite it? In-body:

“The science labs at East St. Louis High School are 30 to 50 years outdated” (Kozol 27).

Works Cited:

Kozol, Jonathan. Savage inequalities: Children in America’s Schools. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.

create a works cited page 7 on checklist
Create a Works Cited Page (#7 on checklist)

Use the website listed to create a “Works Cited” page.

You don’t have to remember the format of each component, just use the

Use an MLA creator like or*if you want*or Download the template from Tosspon’s website *If you want*

analytical questions to ask yourself as you revise
Analytical Questions to ask yourselfas you revise

Does the paper fulfill the requirements of the assignment? (topics, length, style)

Will my audience understand my thesis and how I have supported it?

Does the introduction prepare the reader and capture attention?

Is the body of the paper organized well?

Is each idea fully developed, explained, and supported by examples?

Are my ideas connected to one another through logical transitions?

Do I have a clear, “to the point” writing style? (try to avoid the passive voice!)

Does the conclusion provide a natural ending to the paper?