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Leadership - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Leadership
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  1. Leadership

  2. Leadership • Process by which an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal • Leadership is not a moral concept • Good leaders understand their strengths & weaknesses • Traits, behaviors, contingency, transformational

  3. Leadership • Complex • Every time a manager and an employee interact there are many variables at play • Examples: • Manager’s objective & employee’s objective • Manager’s attitude about the employee & the employee’s attitude about the manager • Manager’s ability to communicate & employee’s ability to communicate • Manager’s moods/emotions & employee’s moods/emotions • People perceive things differently • The more of these variables that you are able to take into consideration, the more likely you are to make a good decision

  4. Leadership • Individualistic • Not all great leaders are the same • Not about trying to be like someone else • Increased self awareness • Ability to learn from constructive feedback

  5. Vision Values Consistent W/ Vision Personally Adopt Values Followers Adopt Values Followers Behave Consistent W/ Values Achieve Vision

  6. Trait Theory • Some people have an innate ability to lead others • Stodgill & Mann • Intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, energy, task-relevant knowledge • Implicit Leadership Theory • People have leadership prototypes • Intelligence, masculinity, dominance

  7. Trait Theory, continued • Kouzes & Posner • “What values do you look for and admire in your superiors?” • Honesty, forward-looking, inspiring, & competent • Credibility • Daniel Goleman • Emotional Intelligence • Tim Judge • Extraversion, conscientiousness, & openness to experience were related to leadership effectiveness • Intelligence was modestly related

  8. Traits of Bad Leaders • Barbara Kellerman • Incompetent • Rigid • Intemperate • Callous • Corrupt • Insular • Evil

  9. Gender & Leadership • Men – task; women – social • Men – autocratic; women – democratic • Equally assertive • Women are often rated higher than men by subordinates & peers

  10. Figure 16-1 Behavioral Styles High Seeks input from others before taking action; gets consensus Emphasizes reaching the goal while welcoming suggestions and encouraging consensus Showing Consideration Passive, noncommittal, low impact on followers Takes charge, structures employees tasks Low Low High Initiating Structure 16-10

  11. Contingency Models of Leadership • No traits or behaviors will ensure effective leadership in all situations • A behavior effective in one situation may be ineffective in another • Appropriate leadership behavior is contingent on the situation

  12. Fiedler’s Contingency Model • Leader style - approach to leadership that a manager uses and does not readily change. • Relationship-oriented : concerned with developing good relations with subordinates and being liked • Task-oriented : ensure that subordinates perform at a high level so the job gets done.

  13. Fiedler’s Situation Characteristics • How favorable a situation is for leading to occur. • Leader-member relations—how much workers like and trust their leader. • Task structure—the extent to which workers tasks are clear-cut • Position Power—the amount of legitimate, reward, and coercive power leaders have

  14. Fielder’s Contingency Model

  15. Full-Range Model of Leadership • Laissez-faire leadership – hands-off approach • Transactional Leadership • Set goals / clarify expectations • Reward/punish (extrinsic motivation) • Transformational Leadership • Change employee’s minds • Influence values, attitudes, personal goals, etc.

  16. Inspirational Motivation • Establish an attractive vision • Gap between current & ideal state • Appeal to employee’s emotions • Show optimism & enthusiasm

  17. Idealized Influence • Respect/admiration for the leader • Sacrificing for the good of the group • Behave ethically/role model

  18. Individualized Consideration • Support, encourage, coach employees • Help employee to develop skills & career • Value ambition

  19. Intellectual Stimulation • Encourage descending opinions • Encourage employees to question the status quo • Encourage employees to think creatively and independently

  20. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) • Quality of the relationship between boss and employee • Leaders don’t treat every subordinate the same way • In-group/out-group • Influenced by personality and demographic similarity

  21. Shared Leadership • Horizontal (peer) influence • Popular in team settings • More people are likely to possess the necessary skills to lead

  22. Servant Leadership • Great leaders act as servants – putting the needs of others first

  23. Followership • Followers differ in terms of how they commit, comply, or resist leadership influence • Helpers – show deference and comply • Independents – create distance; less likely to comply • Rebels – show divergence; least compliant