Leadership UpulAbeyrathne Dept of Economics University of Ruhuna Matara
Leadership • Employees understand less the importance of Leaders • The going on of an organization depends on what leaders do.
Working Definition • It is something that can be recognized but difficult to define. • In identifying the leader formal title and assigned roles each person in the organization is important • However, you would notice, in fact, the identification is wrong because he is not influential. • Then leader is the one within an organization who wields the most influence over the others
Then what is leadership? • “Leadership is the process whereby one individual influence the other group members towards the achievement of organizational goals”. • Leader –Noncoercive influence- followers-attain-goals. • Noncoercive influence distinguishes between leader and dictator. There shall be some positive feeling between leader and subordinates
Leadership is purposive. Leadership exercises influence to attain goals • Leadership requires followers: Leaders are also influenced by the subordinates. Hence, leadership exist only in relation to followers.
Difference between Leader and Manager • Function of a leader is to establish organizational mission • Manager has to implement that vission • Managers cope with complexity • Leadership is about coping with change.
Trait Approach • People have daydream about leaders. • However, only a few convert such dreams into reality. • The few who become leaders, they do not become effective. • This raise the question of what sets effective leaders apart from most others.
Trait Approach • One prevalent approach suggest that is because of characteristic features of leaders • This theory assumes that great leaders possess special traits. These traits remain stable over time and across people.
Characteristic of great leaders • Drive- desire for achievement, ambition, high energy, tenacity and initiative • Honesty and integrity-trust worthiness, reliable and open • Leadership motivation-desire to influence others to reach shared goals • Self-confidence- trust in own abilities • Cognitive ability-intelligence(Cognitive intelligence, Emotional intelligence and cultural intelligence) ability to interpret large amount of information. • Knowledge of the business • Creativity • Flexibility
Leadership style: What do leaders do? • The trait approach focuses on who leaders are. • It is suggested that this approach has to be supplemented by examining what leaders do. • Although all the people are not born with “right stuff” they can try to do “the right thing’’. • We have to concentrate on “what leaders do that make them effective leaders”.
Participative versus Autocratic leadership behaviour • The two can be decided on how much influence is allowed for subordinate to have over the decisions of the organizational process. • Autocratic leaders make all the decisions unilaterally. • Participative leaders allow subordinates to take part in the decision making process and also give them a considerable degree of autonomy in completing routine work activities
Person Oriented versus Production Oriented Leaders • Leaders can be grouped into two groups • Effective and Ineffective • Effective leaders help the subordinates to do the job in many ways. • Production oriented leaders concern mainly with production and primarily focus on getting the job done. They organizes work, induces subordinates to follow rules setting goals, set goals, they make leader’s role and subordinates role explicit.
Person Oriented versus Production Oriented Leaders • Person oriented leaders primarily concern with establishing good relations with subordinates. • Remember both dimension are important in making leadership effective.
Developing successful Leadership Behaviour • Grid Training: A multi-step process designed to cultivate two important leadership skills-concern for people and concern for production. • It is composed of the following steps
Developing successful Leadership Behaviour • 1. Grid Seminar- Previously trained leaders of the organization help organization members analyze their own leadership styles. • Marks are allocated on the criteria of Concern for production and concern for people (Range is 1-9). • Those who score low on both criteria i.e Production and Concern for People, are impoverished managers. • The exercise help to identify 1. Impoverished manager 1,1 in the scale, Task managers 9-1, Country Club Manager 1-9, Middle of the Road Style 5,5 team Management style 9,9
Developing successful Leadership Behaviour • After obtaining the information of the nature of the leadership training begin to improve required skills
Leaders and Followers • Followers are the essence of leadership
Leader-Member Exchange Model • This theory suggest that leaders form different kind of relationship with various groups of subordinates • One group is ‘in group’ it is favoured by the leader. • The other is ‘Out group’ and is disfavoured. • In group members resign less frequently from their job. • In group members receive more mentoring by the leader
Role of Culture • Think of Culture of in different organizations as well as different countries and their effect over organizations and relationship to leadership