Where to look - Pests!. Insects Nematodes Weeds Diseases Rodents and other small mammals Original Presentation by Virginia Tech Modified by the Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office November 2005. Basic classification. Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
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Where to look - Pests! • Insects • Nematodes • Weeds • Diseases • Rodents and other small mammals Original Presentation by Virginia Tech Modified by the Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office November 2005
Basic classification • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species • Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk
Starting at the beginning: • 4 types of Phyla: • Arthropoda( insects, spiders, mites, millipedes) • Aschelminthes (roundworms) • Platyhelminthes (Flatworms, flukes, tapeworms) • Mollusca (snails, slugs, clams) • Arthropoda Phyla is divided into classes: • Crustacea (Crayfish, sowbugs) • Arachnida(spiders, ticks, mites) • Insecta( bugs, beetles, butterflies)
Classification cont. • Insecta Class is divided into Orders: • Orthoptera (grasshoppers) • Homoptera (aphids) • Coleoptera (beetles) • Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies) • Diptera (flies) • Dermoptera (earwigs) • Hemiptera (true bugs) • Hymenoptera (ants, bees)
Rules to fall into Classes and Orders • Arachnida: • must have 2 body segments or parts • must have 4 pairs of legs • *some mites are major plant pests • Insects: • all have three body regions: head, thorax, abdomen • 3 pairs of legs • 1 pair of antennae • 0 to 2 pairs of wings
Head Body Parts • Antennae: segmented, vary in form. • Primarily the smell organ • Mouthparts: • rasping-sucking • chewing-lapping • piercing-sucking
Body Parts • Thorax: made of 3 sections, each containing a pair of legs • legs are jointed • used for digging, feeling, swimming, and cleaning • Wings - differ for each insect • serve as an identification tool • “-ptera” means with wings
Metamorphosis • Development of the body after birth • Gradual (or incomplete) - insect’s life cycle changes from egg through the nymph to adult • nymph, similar to adult except for size and color • aphids, leafhoppers, mole crickets • Complete - 4 life stages • egg, larvae, pupae, adult • larvae looks nothing like adult • pupae is a transformation stage • caterpillars-moths, grubs-beetles, maggots-flies
Beneficial Insects • Not all insects are bad for agriculture • They help: • pollinate plants • improve soil • destroy harmful insects
Other types of pests • Nematodes • Weeds Southern root-knot nematodes on pepper plant roots. This weed is leafy spurge.
Other types of pests • Diseases • Rodents and other animals