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INTRODUCTION TO IPM & INSECT PESTS. Pam Compton IPM Tech CES/UAF. IPM – Integrated Pest Management. The use of all available tactics or strategies to attain an economically acceptable yield or plant quality while causing the least disruption to people, pets and the environment.

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introduction to ipm insect pests
INTRODUCTION TO IPM&INSECT PESTS

Pam Compton

IPM Tech

CES/UAF

ipm integrated pest management
IPM – Integrated Pest Management

The use of all available tactics or strategies to

attain an economically acceptable yield or plant

quality while causing the least disruption to people, pets and the environment.

the 6 steps of ipm
The 6 Steps of IPM

1. Inspect and Investigate

2. Identify and Learn

3. Monitor

4. Choose Control Methods

5. Evaluate

6. Educate

1 inspect investigate
1. Inspect & Investigate
  • Locations discovered
  • Conditions
  • Number observed
  • When noticed
2 identify learn
2. Identify & Learn
  • Id the pest

life cycle

pest/beneficial

what does it eat

where does it live

  • Is it native to Alaska, to South Central?
3 monitor
3. Monitor
  • Trap
  • Check back with client
  • Learn which control method works best
4 choose control methods
Habitat Modification

clean

fix leaks

seal holes

remove food & shelter

Biological Controls

encourage beneficals

Physical Methods

trapping

remove by hand

fly swatter

pest proof barriers

vacuuming

strong spray of water

Pesticides

least poisonous

pest specific

4. Choose Control Methods
5 evaluate
5. Evaluate
  • Check if the pests are still there.
  • Which control method is working the best.
  • Use a different control if necessary.

6. Educate

  • Teach others what you have learned.
insect pests
INSECT PESTS

Of The Garden

dave guinn
Dave Guinn

APHIDS

  • Green Peach Aphid, more than 800 plant species host this insect
  • Appear to over winter in the egg stage, aphids can produce live young continuously over the summer without mating
p f compton uaf ces
P F Compton, UAF/CES
  • Winged mated adults produce the over wintering eggs in the fall
  • Eggs are often laid in a protected site; near a leaf bud or on the bark of trees
stinkbug
Nymphs go through 5 instars before becoming adults

Feed on over 52 different plants, including native and ornamentals

Overwinter as adults

STINKBUG
www hortnet co nz p f compton uaf ces
www.hortnet.co.nzP F Compton, UAF/CES

DAMAGE

  • Leaf distortion caused by feeding; feeding can also distort flowers and fruit
  • Loss of plant vigor
  • Aphids also secrete honeydew on which sooty black mold can grow
  • Spread of disease
control options
Control Options
  • Use a high PF Compton UAF/CES

pressure spray of water

  • Rub insects off
  • Encourage predators
  • Reflective mulches
  • Insecticidal soap spray
  • Horticultural oils
  • Other registered pesticides

Ipm ncsu edu

pam compton ces uaf
Pam Compton CES/UAF

CUTWORMS

  • Different species of soil-dwelling caterpillars (Noctuidae)
  • Curl into a ‘C’ when disturbed
  • Usually feed at night, clip plant off at soil level
  • Some climb mature plants to feed on leaves
damage
Damage
  • Many over winter as eggs that hatch in early spring
  • Feed on crops or weeds
  • Move into the soil to pupate by mid summer
  • Adults emerge in July or August
control options1
Control Options
  • Keep the areas surrounding the garden free of sod and weeds
  • Cultivate the soil in the fall
  • Use collars, barriers or screens to keep cutworms from reaching plants
  • Sticky bands can trap climbing cutworms
  • Insecticides including Bt can be used before serious damage occurs
pam compton ces uaf1
Pam Compton CES/UAF

MITES

Tiny, eight-legged, round-bodied animals that resemble spiders

Both young and adult pierce the plant then feed on the plant juices

pam compton ces uaf2
Pam Compton CES/UAF

DAMAGE

  • Feeding result in a mottled pattern and leaf distortion
  • Can result in reduced flower and fruit production
  • Some mites produce webbing or galls
control options2
CONTROL OPTIONS
  • If possible use a forceful spray of water to dislodge
  • Insecticidal soap if labeled for mites
  • Predator introduction
  • IGR’s (Insect Growth Regulator)
  • Miticides
insect images jack t reed
Insect Images Jack T Reed

THRIPS

  • Small, fast moving, dark-brown insects with feathery wings
  • Deposit eggs in slits made in the leaf
  • Generally over winter as adults
insect images ronald smith whitney cranshaw
Insect Images-Ronald Smith-Whitney Cranshaw

DAMAGE

  • Leaves where feeding has occurred may become silvery-grey with brownish feces left by feeding thrips
  • Leaves may become distorted; flowers mottled
control options3
CONTROL OPTIONS
  • Insecticidal soap, check label for precautions when using on delicate blooms
  • Botanical and synthetic insecticides are also available
whitney cranshaw colorado state university bugwood org
Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org
  • The rose tortrix moth is established in Anchorage and has now been introduced to the Mat-Su
  • European leaf-roller
  • Attacks the rose family; wild & cultivated roses, raspberry, cotoneaster, apple and mt ash.
damage1
DAMAGE
  • Stop local growth by chewing terminal buds below calyx
  • Damage to blossoms can cause premature drop or malformed fruit
  • Webbing can interfere with photosynthesis
insect images whitney cranshaw
Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw

FUNGUS GNATS

  • Adults live ~1 week and tend to be a pest due to their flying behavior and numbers
  • Eggs are laid in the soil soon after mating
  • Larvae feed on organic material including plant roots
insect images gerald j lenhard
Insect Images-Gerald J Lenhard
  • DAMAGE
  • Plant injury occurs when the larvae feeds on tiny plant roots
  • Seedlings are more at risk to feeding damage
control options4
CONTROL OPTIONS
  • Vacuum pests off plants
  • Sticky traps
  • Introduce beneficial insects
  • Insecticidal soap, botanical insecticide, or other; listing host plant, pest and the site on the label
  • Eliminate any easy way in
  • Alter habitat, reduce moisture
insect images whitney cranshaw1
Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw

LEAFMINERS

  • Foliage of many plants may be attacked; vegetables, houseplants, and trees
  • Leafminers may be flies, sawflies, or moths
  • Eggs are laid on the surface or inserted into plant tissue
top pam compton ces uaf bottom insect images john a weidhass
(top)Pam Compton, CES/UAF (bottom)Insect Images-John A Weidhass

DAMAGE

  • Larvae live and feed between leaf surfaces
  • Photosynthetic activity is reduced and plant is weakened
control options5
CONTROL OPTIONS
  • Screen or cover susceptible plants when adults are present
  • Removal of infested plant leaves will reduce future pest populations
  • Systemic insecticides; plant, pest, and site listed on label
  • IGR’s (Insect Growth Regulators) pest specific
  • Secure points of access for pests
insect images whitney cranshaw usda ars photo unit
Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw//USDA ARS photo unit

MEALYBUGS

  • The nymph move freely about the plant until they find a spot to settle
  • Once they settle production of the waxy covering begins or else will develop into short lived winged males
  • Females will lay hundreds of eggs beneath the waxy covering
insect images william m ciesla
Insect Images-William M Ciesla

DAMAGE

  • Cousin to the aphid, mealybugs pierce the plant and feed on the sap
  • The plants vigor and growth is reduced as they feed
  • Plants then become more susceptible to other insects and disease
control options6
CONTROL OPTIONS
  • Hand pick
  • Shower with high pressure spray (careful with fragile foliage)
  • Stationary insects can be swabbed off with alcohol
  • Introduce beneficial insects
  • Sticky traps
  • Systemic insecticides, labeled for plant, pest, and site
stevehopkin co uk
Stevehopkin.co.uk

SPRINGTAILS

  • Primarily are decomposers
  • Can be found in rich organic soil
  • They have a short life cycle
www emporia edu biosci
www.emporia.edu/biosci

DAMAGE

  • Rarely are plants damaged by springtails
  • Large populations may damage root hairs of most greenhouse plantings
control options7
CONTROL OPTIONS
  • Change the organic content of your potting soil
  • Eliminate high moisture areas
  • Introduce beneficial insects
  • Insecticides which list pest, plant, and site
top insect images david riley down central science lab harpenden archives
(top)Insect Images-David Riley—(down) Central Science Lab. Harpenden Archives

WHITEFLIES

  • Females lay circular groups of eggs on the undersides of leaves
  • Nymphs resemble the young of mealybugs or scale
  • The adults emerge after pupation
  • Broadly oblong wings are covered with a white waxy powder
insect images david riley
Insect Images-David Riley

DAMAGE

  • Most greenhouse and houseplants are hosts
  • Adults can usually be seen resting on the foliage
  • Nymphs decrease the vigor of the plant by sucking the sap
control options8
CONTROL OPTIONS
  • Hand pick or vacuum visible pests
  • Sticky traps
  • Spot kill with an alcohol swab
  • Introduce and encourage beneficial insects
  • Alter plant habitat
  • Insecticidal soap, botanical insecticide listing host plant, pest, and site
  • IGR’s
slide52
(top) Edward H Holsten, USDA Forest Service, www.insectimages.org (bottom) Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado StateUniversity,www.insectimages.org

CARPENTER ANTS

  • Among the most efficient wood-destroyers in Alaska
  • Construct nests in wood
  • Winged ants develop in mature nests of >2,000
  • Important decomposers of decaying trees
slide53
(top) USDA Forest Service-NW Area Archives, www.insectimages.org(bottom) R. Werner, USDAForest Service, www.insectimages.org
  • DAMAGE
  • Often enter standing trees through a wound
  • Nesting sites; between insulation & subfloor, ceilings, wall voids, supports in crawl places, & heartwood of live trees
  • Only need 12% moisture to colonize
edward h holsten usda forest service www insectimages org
Edward H Holsten, USDA Forest Service. www.insectimages.org

Control options

  • Determine location of nest and look for signs of wood damage
  • Prune or remove foliage near home
  • Avoid storing wet or rotting wood, or firewood, along side structures
  • Remove the nest
  • Use diatomaceous earth or silica aerogel on the exposed nest
  • Boric acid can be used according to label directions
pam compton ces uaf3
Pam Compton CES/UAF

STORED FOOD PESTS

Life history varies among species, though many can have several generations a year depending on temperature and food availability

Adult and larval stage of stored food beetles infest foods; consuming and often breeding in the material.

pam compton uaf ces laura jesse iowa state university
Pam Compton UAF/CES Laura Jesse, Iowa State University

DAMAGE

A wide range of stored foods can be contaminated:

-grains

-flours

-nuts

-beans

-pasta

-dried fruit

-spices

Plus the areas where foods are stored

control options9
CONTROL OPTIONS
  • Examine foods for pests before storing
  • Use airtight containers to keep pests out of foods, or store susceptible foods in the refrigerator or freezer
  • Kill pests in foods by freezing or heating
  • Keep food service and storage areas clean and free of spilled food; use vaccum or stiff brush and sponge
  • Monitor for pests with traps
resources
RESOURCES
  • Identifying & Controlling Pests in Alaska, CES, College of Rural Alaska, University of Alaska Fairbanks
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