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Spraying Your Rose Garden. A little bit about a lot of things. Topics for Tonight. Rose garden spray equipment Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Garden chemicals/pesticides Labels and MSDSs Types of pesticides Modes of Action Pests versus Pesticides. More Topics.

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spraying your rose garden

Spraying Your Rose Garden

A little bit about a lot of things...

topics for tonight
Topics for Tonight
  • Rose garden spray equipment
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • Garden chemicals/pesticides
    • Labels and MSDSs
    • Types of pesticides
    • Modes of Action
  • Pests versus Pesticides
more topics
More Topics
  • What pesticides to buy and where
    • Specialty/patented products
    • Generics
    • Ready-to-Use (RTU) and Over-the-Counter (OTC)
  • Adjuvants and chemical helpers
  • Shelf life, storage, and disposal
the application of pesticides
The Application of Pesticides
  • Drench – application of the diluted, systemic concentrate to the soil around the bush for absorption through the bush’s root system
  • Fumigant – application as a gas/vapor within a confined space such as a greenhouse
  • Spray – application via atomized droplets to the bush’s foliage and canes
rose garden spray equipment
Rose garden spray equipment
  • For the small garden (10 or fewer bushes)
    • RTU products in 16 oz or 24 oz spray bottles
    • Hose-end sprayers with metered mixing rates
    • Small (1 quart to 1 gallon) pump-up sprayers, e.g., Solo model 418-1L
rose garden spray equipment1
Rose garden spray equipment
  • For the medium-sized garden (10 to 100 bushes)
    • Up to 20+ gallons of spray per application (think spider mites)
    • Back-Pack or roll-around sprayers with 3, 4, or 5 gallon capacities
    • Hand pumped or battery-powered
rose garden spray equipment2
Rose garden spray equipment
  • For the large (100+ bushes) rose garden
    • Now we may be talking 50 gallons or more of spray per application
    • Roll-around, battery-powered, heavy-duty stuff
    • Maybe even gasoline-powered...
internet sources for spray equipment information
Internet sources for spray equipment information
  • www.rosemania.com – look under Our Products/Spray Equipment
  • www.northerntools.com – look under Categories/Sprayers
  • www.allamericangeneralstore.com – search for Hudson
  • www.bugpage.com – look under Backpack Sprayers
  • www.rittenhouse.ca – look under Rittenhouse Sprayers
  • www.gemplers.com – look under Pest Management/Sprayers
  • www.systemacc.com – look under Rechargeable or Compression Sprayers
  • www.solousa.com – look under Chemical Applicators
  • www.hdhudson.com – browse the website for lots of good sprayer info
  • www.spsystemsllc.com – follow the links from Our Products
  • www.bayeradvanced.com – look under Products/Rose and Garden Care
  • www.gardentech.com – select Sevin or Daconil
  • www.saferbrand.com -- look under Online Store/Garden Care-Flowers
  • www.rosemania.com – look under Our Products/Spray Equipment
  • www.northerntools.com – look under Categories/Sprayers
  • www.allamericangeneralstore.com – search for Hudson
  • www.bugpage.com – look under Backpack Sprayers
  • www.rittenhouse.ca – look under Rittenhouse Sprayers
  • www.gemplers.com – look under Pest Management/Sprayers
  • www.systemacc.com – look under Rechargeable or Compression Sprayers
  • www.solousa.com – look under Chemical Applicators
  • www.hdhudson.com – browse the website for lots of good sprayer info
  • www.spsystemsllc.com – follow the links from Our Products
  • www.bayeradvanced.com – look under Products/Rose and Garden Care
  • www.gardentech.com – select Sevin or Daconil
  • www.saferbrand.com -- look under Online Store/Garden Care-Flowers
personal protective equipment
Personal Protective Equipment
  • To protect the skin, eyes and lungs from undiluted chemicals and the diluted spray material
    • Long-sleeved shirt and long pants
    • Chemical resistant gloves
    • Shoes plus socks
    • Protective eyewear, and a
    • Dust/mist filtering respirator
garden chemicals pesticides
Garden Chemicals/Pesticides
  • Labels and MSDSs
    • Always read the label!
    • First items: product trade name, brief description, identification and amount of active ingredient (AI)
    • Next: the “signal word” – Danger, Warning, and Caution in decreasing order of toxicity
    • Followed by: Precautionary Statements – safety, first aid, PPE, etc.
    • And then: Use Recommendations – pests controlled, application rates, mixing procedures, etc.
decoding the labels
“Decoding” the Labels
  • Consider Merit 75 WP
    • The 75 means Merit contains 75% of its active ingredient, Imidacloprid
    • The WP indicates this form of Merit is a Wettable Powder
  • On other products
    • SC = soluble concentrate; WDG = wettable, dispersible granules; EW = emulsified in water; WSP = water soluble packaging
pesticide toxicity
Pesticide Toxicity
  • Signal Words
    • Caution = slightly toxic
    • Warning = moderately toxic
    • Danger = highly toxic
  • Lethal Dose
    • LD50 is the dose that would kill 50% of any test population
    • LD50 is measured in milligrams of pesticide per kilogram of weight of the test subject
    • LD50 can be below 50 mg/kg for Danger, over 50 to 2,000 for Warning, and over 500 to 20,000 for Caution
    • LD50 values are found in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the pesticide in question
getting the labels
Getting the Labels
  • And the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
  • Sources of labels:
    • On the chemicals’ containers
    • Manufacturers’ websites – for example, www.bayeradvanced.com
    • Vendors’ websites – for example, www.rosemania.com
    • www.cdms.net – offers labels and MSDS for all registered pesticides – search by product name
    • www.greenbook.net – another site like cdms.net – however, requires simple registration
systemic chemicals
Systemic Chemicals
  • Apply to the foliage as a spray or to the roots as a drench
  • Moves (typically, up) through the plant’s vascular system
    • Phloem cells – like “arteries” through which sugars and other plant products move
    • Xylem – tubular structure for the transport of water and dissolved minerals --think tree growth rings
  • Chemicals stay within the plant – don’t wash off
  • Downside – systemics don’t enter the blooms
translaminar chemicals
Translaminar Chemicals
  • Trans = across or through, like transatlantic
  • Laminar = layered
  • Translaminar = through layers
  • Sometimes referred to as locally systemic
  • Applied to foliage as a spray, these chemicals are absorbed by the plant
  • They move through foliage from one surface to the other
  • Great for spider mites which feed on the underside of leaves and are nearly unaffected by systemics
contact sprays
Contact Sprays
  • Applied to foliage, buds and blooms as a spray
  • Remain on the surface of foliage and blooms
  • Not absorbed by the plant
  • Pretty much the only way to protect blooms
  • Downside – contact sprays wash off in the rain
resistance management modes of action
Resistance Management/Modes of Action
  • Resistance management in the garden is a problem akin to certain antibiotics losing their effectiveness in humans due to repeated or improper use
  • Repeated use of the same pesticide allows the target pest to mutate and adapt and become resistant to the pesticide
  • Each insecticide and fungicide has a specific mode of action (MOA) in the way it disables and kills its target pest
  • If these MOAs are alternated from one spraying to the next the target pest is very less likely to adapt
resistance management cont
Resistance Management (Cont.)
  • Or, if chemicals with different MOAs are mixed in a single spraying the target pest is unable to adapt
  • The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC – www.irac-online.org) in its latest publication identifies 28 insecticide MOAs
  • The Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC – www.frac.info) has identified over 40 fungicide MOAs
  • Dr. Ray Cloyd and I decided that the large number of MOAs should and could be consolidated to be of more use to rosarians – we came up with 6 insecticide MOAs and 6 fungicide MOAs
resistance management cont1
Resistance Management (Cont.)
  • Your handout contains the two tables that Dr. Cloyd and I derived from the IRAC and FRAC publications
  • MOA 6 in both tables is what Dr. Cloyd calls the “napalm” MOA – the chemicals in this group kill on contact and leave little or no room for adaptation
  • I’ve found two useful insecticide partnerings to be Merit and Tempo and Avid and TetraSan
  • An effective fungicide partnering is Banner Maxx (alternated with Cleary’s 3336F) and Compass
a few words about herbicides
A few words about Herbicides
  • This is really about controlling weeds
  • Before they sprout use pre-emergent herbicides like Preen® (AI=trifluralin)
  • After they sprout use herbicides like Roundup® (AI=glyphosate)
    • Never broadcast spray
    • Use RTU products with nozzles provided
    • Don’t use within 18” of the base of the bushes
    • Roundup is harmless to animals and after it comes in contact with soil
specific chemicals for specific pests
Specific Chemicals for Specific Pests
  • Insecticides
    • Orthene – MOA 1 – a translaminar chemical – spray for the control of aphids, Japanese Beetles, and thrips
    • Sevin – MOA 1 – a contact spray – very effective against Japanese Beetles – has resistance management problems with thrips if used alone – combine with Tempo, Talstar or Conserve
    • Talstar – MOA 2 – a contact spray – also registered as a miticide – good control of aphids and Japanese Beetles – look also for Bifen I/T – exactly the same as Talstar but less expensive ($59.90 vs $99.99 per quart)
more pest killers
More Pest Killers
  • Insecticides (Cont.)
    • Tempo – MOA 2 - a highly-effective contact spray – kills just about any insect
    • Avid – MOA 3 – a translaminar spray – kills adult spider mites
    • Floramite – MOA 3 – a contact spray – kills all spider mite life stages
    • Akari 5SC – MOA 3 – a contact spray – kills all spider mite life stages – 60% the cost of Floramite
    • Merit - MOA 4 – a very effective systemic chemical – kills any insects that are eating the foliage – use as a drench or spray
    • Conserve – MOA 4 – a translaminar spray – probably the most effective attack on thrips
and more
...And More
  • Insecticides (Cont.)
    • Hexygon – MOA 5 – a contact spray for the control of spider mite larva and eggs – combine with Avid
    • TetraSan – MOA 5 – a translaminar spray for the control of spider mite larva and eggs – combine with Avid for a translaminar spray addressing all mite life stages
    • Forbid 4F – MOA 6 – a translaminar spray for the control of all spider mite life stages – minimum resistance management problems – very expensive
    • Kontos – MOA 6 – a new “two-way” systemic chemical – an effective replacement/substitute for Merit
now disease fungus control
Now...Disease (Fungus) Control
  • Fungicides
    • Banner Maxx – MOA 1 – a systemic chemical that attacks blackspot, powdery mildew and rust
    • Eagle 20 EW – MOA 1 – very similar to Banner Maxx but less toxic (CAUTION instead of WARNING) – same active ingredient as Systhane
    • Decree 50 WDG – MOA 1 – specifically registered as a botryticide
    • Cleary’s 3336F – MOA 2 – a systemic chemical that can be alternated with Banner Maxx
    • Chipco 26019 Flo – MOA 3 – specifically registered to control botrytis blight – alternate with Decree
more disease control
More Disease Control
  • Fungicides (Cont.)
    • Subdue Maxx – MOA 4 – targets root and stem rot – primarily used as a drench in greenhouses
    • Compass – MOA 5 – a translaminar chemical that controls just about every rose disease, including botrytis, downy mildew, and powdery mildew
    • Heritage – MOA 5 – a suitable substitute for Compass
    • Alliette – MOA 6 – an aluminum-based systemic chemical that specifically targets downy mildew
    • Manzate – MOA 6 – a zinc- and manganese-based contact spray for the very effective eradication of blackspot – now sold as Pentathlon
    • Zyban – MOAs 2 and 6 – a combination of the active ingredients in Cleary’s 3336F and Manzate – comes as a fine powder
pesticide acquisition where to buy
Pesticide Acquisition – Where to Buy
  • Where to learn about them - other rosarians, ads in rose magazines and newsletters, rose forums on the Internet, and rose care websites like:
    • www.rosemania.com
    • www.rosecare.com
    • www.saveonchemicals.com
    • www.growersupply.com
    • www.southernag.com
    • www.pestproducts.com
    • And links from www.chattanoogarose.org
what about generics
What about generics?...
  • Pesticides like Compass, Forbid and Kontos are “on-patent” and command high prices
  • Generics are pesticides that have come “off-patent” like Merit, Avid and Banner Maxx
  • Generics often cost less than 50% of the cost of the “on-patent” products
some examples of generics
Some examples of generics
  • Lucid = Avid -- $145 vs. $285 (quart)
  • Zenith = Merit -- $10 vs. $60 (2oz)
  • Honor Guard = Banner Maxx -- $31 vs. $70 (pint)
  • OHP 6672 = Cleary’s 3336F -- $29 vs. $73 (quart)
  • Bifen I/T = Talstar -- $42 vs. $80 (quart)
rtu and otc products
RTU and OTC Products
  • Products available at Lowe’s, Home Depot, etc.
  • Bayer Advanced Garden Products
    • www.bayeradvanced.com
    • Rose & Flower Insect Killer
      • A combination of Merit and Tempo
      • Available in spray bottle, hose-end sprayer and concentrate
    • 2 in 1 Systemic Rose & Flower Care
      • Granules sprinkled around bush and watered-in
      • 12-18-6 fertilizer
      • Orthene-like systemic insecticide - disulfoton
rtu and otc products cont
RTU and OTC Products (Cont.)
  • More Bayer Advanced Garden Products
    • All-in-One Rose & Flower Care
      • Merit insecticide plus Banner Maxx fungicide
      • 9-14-9 fertilizer
      • Mixed 4 tbsp/quart and used as a drench
    • Bayer Advanced Disease Control
      • Concentrate diluted 1.5 tbsp/gallon to spray
      • Active ingredient same as Banner Maxx
some other rtu otc products
Some Other RTU/OTC Products
  • Safer Brand 3 in 1 Garden Spray – uses fatty acids, sulfur and neem oil (MOA 6) to create an environmentally safe insecticide, fungicide and miticide
  • Green Light Bioganic Organic Rose & Flower Ready-to-Use – uses plant oils (MOA 6) to create an environmentally safe insecticide, fungicide and miticide
  • Ortho Orthenex Insect & Disease Control – active ingredients are acephate (Orthene) and triforine (same chemical group as Banner Maxx)
  • GardenTech Sevin – OTC version of this very effective insecticide (MOA 1)
pesticide storage
Pesticide Storage
  • Rules for safe storage:
    • Be sure that the caps on all pesticide containers are securely sealed, and use the original container whenever possible.
    • Keep pesticides at “room temperature” in a locked room and out of reach of children or animals.
    • Do not carry over pesticide products whose labels are lost or illegible.
    • Store glass bottles in a metal or plastic container -- in case the glass breaks its contents are contained.
    • As a precaution store water soluble bags (e.g., Zyban) in a waterproof container.
    • Try to purchase pesticides in a container size small enough that the product will be used up during one growing season – in view of the shelf life limitations this could prove to be the most economical way to stock your chemical arsenal.
pesticide shelf life
Pesticide Shelf Life
  • Indicators of pesticide breakdown:
    • Emulsifiable Concentrates – addition of water does not produce a milky solution.
    • Emulsified in Water -- the concentrate has separated and shaking or the addition of water does not produce a milky solution.
    • Wettable Powders – powder has formed lumps and will not mix or disperse in water.
    • Water Dispersible Granules – not as likely to lump, but should continue to mix easily with or disperse in water.
  • Don’t rely on powders stored more than two years and liquids more than three
pesticide disposal
Pesticide Disposal
  • When the pesticide is no longer effective DON’T throw it in the trash
  • Many of the chemicals we use are real threats to our groundwater (e.g., Merit)
  • Empty containers at local Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Center
    • Wood Recycling Facility, 3925 North Hawthorne Street in Chattanooga
  • Triple-rinse recyclable containers – apply rinse water to garden
and finally adjuvants
And, Finally...Adjuvants
  • Adjuvant – serving to help or assist – something to make a spray more effective
  • Stirrup M – a pheromone (sexual attractant) that draws spider mites to any spray in which it’s mixed
  • Indicate 5 – adjusts pH of spray water and serves as a spreader-sticker – most sprays more effective in a slightly acidic liquid
  • Hi-Yield Spreader-Sticker (or any other OTC brand) – makes spray adhere to foliage instead of dribbling off