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Spraying Your Rose Garden

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  1. Spraying Your Rose Garden A little bit about a lot of things...

  2. Topics for Tonight • Rose garden spray equipment • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Garden chemicals/pesticides • Labels and MSDSs • Types of pesticides • Modes of Action • Pests versus Pesticides

  3. More Topics • What pesticides to buy and where • Specialty/patented products • Generics • Ready-to-Use (RTU) and Over-the-Counter (OTC) • Adjuvants and chemical helpers • Shelf life, storage, and disposal

  4. The Application of Pesticides • Drench – application of the diluted, systemic concentrate to the soil around the bush for absorption through the bush’s root system • Fumigant – application as a gas/vapor within a confined space such as a greenhouse • Spray – application via atomized droplets to the bush’s foliage and canes

  5. Rose garden spray equipment • For the small garden (10 or fewer bushes) • RTU products in 16 oz or 24 oz spray bottles • Hose-end sprayers with metered mixing rates • Small (1 quart to 1 gallon) pump-up sprayers, e.g., Solo model 418-1L

  6. Solo® 418-1L Hand-Held Sprayer

  7. Rose garden spray equipment • For the medium-sized garden (10 to 100 bushes) • Up to 20+ gallons of spray per application (think spider mites) • Back-Pack or roll-around sprayers with 3, 4, or 5 gallon capacities • Hand pumped or battery-powered

  8. Solo® 425DLX 4-gallon Back-Pack Sprayer

  9. Hudson® NeverPump 4-gallon Bak-Pak Sprayer

  10. Rose garden spray equipment • For the large (100+ bushes) rose garden • Now we may be talking 50 gallons or more of spray per application • Roll-around, battery-powered, heavy-duty stuff • Maybe even gasoline-powered...

  11. HotShot Rollaround Battery-Powered Sprayer

  12. Dramm® Gas-Powered 20-gallon Sprayer

  13. Internet sources for spray equipment information • www.rosemania.com – look under Our Products/Spray Equipment • www.northerntools.com – look under Categories/Sprayers • www.allamericangeneralstore.com – search for Hudson • www.bugpage.com – look under Backpack Sprayers • www.rittenhouse.ca – look under Rittenhouse Sprayers • www.gemplers.com – look under Pest Management/Sprayers • www.systemacc.com – look under Rechargeable or Compression Sprayers • www.solousa.com – look under Chemical Applicators • www.hdhudson.com – browse the website for lots of good sprayer info • www.spsystemsllc.com – follow the links from Our Products • www.bayeradvanced.com – look under Products/Rose and Garden Care • www.gardentech.com – select Sevin or Daconil • www.saferbrand.com -- look under Online Store/Garden Care-Flowers • www.rosemania.com – look under Our Products/Spray Equipment • www.northerntools.com – look under Categories/Sprayers • www.allamericangeneralstore.com – search for Hudson • www.bugpage.com – look under Backpack Sprayers • www.rittenhouse.ca – look under Rittenhouse Sprayers • www.gemplers.com – look under Pest Management/Sprayers • www.systemacc.com – look under Rechargeable or Compression Sprayers • www.solousa.com – look under Chemical Applicators • www.hdhudson.com – browse the website for lots of good sprayer info • www.spsystemsllc.com – follow the links from Our Products • www.bayeradvanced.com – look under Products/Rose and Garden Care • www.gardentech.com – select Sevin or Daconil • www.saferbrand.com -- look under Online Store/Garden Care-Flowers

  14. Personal Protective Equipment • To protect the skin, eyes and lungs from undiluted chemicals and the diluted spray material • Long-sleeved shirt and long pants • Chemical resistant gloves • Shoes plus socks • Protective eyewear, and a • Dust/mist filtering respirator

  15. Chemical splash goggles with ventilation

  16. Moldex® 2300 N95 (TC-84A approval) Respirator

  17. Tyvek® Hood and Respirator

  18. Garden Chemicals/Pesticides • Labels and MSDSs • Always read the label! • First items: product trade name, brief description, identification and amount of active ingredient (AI) • Next: the “signal word” – Danger, Warning, and Caution in decreasing order of toxicity • Followed by: Precautionary Statements – safety, first aid, PPE, etc. • And then: Use Recommendations – pests controlled, application rates, mixing procedures, etc.

  19. “Decoding” the Labels • Consider Merit 75 WP • The 75 means Merit contains 75% of its active ingredient, Imidacloprid • The WP indicates this form of Merit is a Wettable Powder • On other products • SC = soluble concentrate; WDG = wettable, dispersible granules; EW = emulsified in water; WSP = water soluble packaging

  20. Pesticide Toxicity • Signal Words • Caution = slightly toxic • Warning = moderately toxic • Danger = highly toxic • Lethal Dose • LD50 is the dose that would kill 50% of any test population • LD50 is measured in milligrams of pesticide per kilogram of weight of the test subject • LD50 can be below 50 mg/kg for Danger, over 50 to 2,000 for Warning, and over 500 to 20,000 for Caution • LD50 values are found in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the pesticide in question

  21. Getting the Labels • And the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) • Sources of labels: • On the chemicals’ containers • Manufacturers’ websites – for example, www.bayeradvanced.com • Vendors’ websites – for example, www.rosemania.com • www.cdms.net – offers labels and MSDS for all registered pesticides – search by product name • www.greenbook.net – another site like cdms.net – however, requires simple registration

  22. Hierarchy of Pesticides

  23. Systemic Chemicals • Apply to the foliage as a spray or to the roots as a drench • Moves (typically, up) through the plant’s vascular system • Phloem cells – like “arteries” through which sugars and other plant products move • Xylem – tubular structure for the transport of water and dissolved minerals --think tree growth rings • Chemicals stay within the plant – don’t wash off • Downside – systemics don’t enter the blooms

  24. Translaminar Chemicals • Trans = across or through, like transatlantic • Laminar = layered • Translaminar = through layers • Sometimes referred to as locally systemic • Applied to foliage as a spray, these chemicals are absorbed by the plant • They move through foliage from one surface to the other • Great for spider mites which feed on the underside of leaves and are nearly unaffected by systemics

  25. Contact Sprays • Applied to foliage, buds and blooms as a spray • Remain on the surface of foliage and blooms • Not absorbed by the plant • Pretty much the only way to protect blooms • Downside – contact sprays wash off in the rain

  26. Resistance Management/Modes of Action • Resistance management in the garden is a problem akin to certain antibiotics losing their effectiveness in humans due to repeated or improper use • Repeated use of the same pesticide allows the target pest to mutate and adapt and become resistant to the pesticide • Each insecticide and fungicide has a specific mode of action (MOA) in the way it disables and kills its target pest • If these MOAs are alternated from one spraying to the next the target pest is very less likely to adapt

  27. Resistance Management (Cont.) • Or, if chemicals with different MOAs are mixed in a single spraying the target pest is unable to adapt • The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC – www.irac-online.org) in its latest publication identifies 28 insecticide MOAs • The Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC – www.frac.info) has identified over 40 fungicide MOAs • Dr. Ray Cloyd and I decided that the large number of MOAs should and could be consolidated to be of more use to rosarians – we came up with 6 insecticide MOAs and 6 fungicide MOAs

  28. Resistance Management (Cont.) • Your handout contains the two tables that Dr. Cloyd and I derived from the IRAC and FRAC publications • MOA 6 in both tables is what Dr. Cloyd calls the “napalm” MOA – the chemicals in this group kill on contact and leave little or no room for adaptation • I’ve found two useful insecticide partnerings to be Merit and Tempo and Avid and TetraSan • An effective fungicide partnering is Banner Maxx (alternated with Cleary’s 3336F) and Compass

  29. A few words about Herbicides • This is really about controlling weeds • Before they sprout use pre-emergent herbicides like Preen® (AI=trifluralin) • After they sprout use herbicides like Roundup® (AI=glyphosate) • Never broadcast spray • Use RTU products with nozzles provided • Don’t use within 18” of the base of the bushes • Roundup is harmless to animals and after it comes in contact with soil

  30. Roundup® RTU from Scott

  31. Specific Chemicals for Specific Pests • Insecticides • Orthene – MOA 1 – a translaminar chemical – spray for the control of aphids, Japanese Beetles, and thrips • Sevin – MOA 1 – a contact spray – very effective against Japanese Beetles – has resistance management problems with thrips if used alone – combine with Tempo, Talstar or Conserve • Talstar – MOA 2 – a contact spray – also registered as a miticide – good control of aphids and Japanese Beetles – look also for Bifen I/T – exactly the same as Talstar but less expensive ($59.90 vs $99.99 per quart)

  32. More Pest Killers • Insecticides (Cont.) • Tempo – MOA 2 - a highly-effective contact spray – kills just about any insect • Avid – MOA 3 – a translaminar spray – kills adult spider mites • Floramite – MOA 3 – a contact spray – kills all spider mite life stages • Akari 5SC – MOA 3 – a contact spray – kills all spider mite life stages – 60% the cost of Floramite • Merit - MOA 4 – a very effective systemic chemical – kills any insects that are eating the foliage – use as a drench or spray • Conserve – MOA 4 – a translaminar spray – probably the most effective attack on thrips

  33. ...And More • Insecticides (Cont.) • Hexygon – MOA 5 – a contact spray for the control of spider mite larva and eggs – combine with Avid • TetraSan – MOA 5 – a translaminar spray for the control of spider mite larva and eggs – combine with Avid for a translaminar spray addressing all mite life stages • Forbid 4F – MOA 6 – a translaminar spray for the control of all spider mite life stages – minimum resistance management problems – very expensive • Kontos – MOA 6 – a new “two-way” systemic chemical – an effective replacement/substitute for Merit

  34. Now...Disease (Fungus) Control • Fungicides • Banner Maxx – MOA 1 – a systemic chemical that attacks blackspot, powdery mildew and rust • Eagle 20 EW – MOA 1 – very similar to Banner Maxx but less toxic (CAUTION instead of WARNING) – same active ingredient as Systhane • Decree 50 WDG – MOA 1 – specifically registered as a botryticide • Cleary’s 3336F – MOA 2 – a systemic chemical that can be alternated with Banner Maxx • Chipco 26019 Flo – MOA 3 – specifically registered to control botrytis blight – alternate with Decree

  35. More Disease Control • Fungicides (Cont.) • Subdue Maxx – MOA 4 – targets root and stem rot – primarily used as a drench in greenhouses • Compass – MOA 5 – a translaminar chemical that controls just about every rose disease, including botrytis, downy mildew, and powdery mildew • Heritage – MOA 5 – a suitable substitute for Compass • Alliette – MOA 6 – an aluminum-based systemic chemical that specifically targets downy mildew • Manzate – MOA 6 – a zinc- and manganese-based contact spray for the very effective eradication of blackspot – now sold as Pentathlon • Zyban – MOAs 2 and 6 – a combination of the active ingredients in Cleary’s 3336F and Manzate – comes as a fine powder

  36. Pesticide Acquisition – Where to Buy • Where to learn about them - other rosarians, ads in rose magazines and newsletters, rose forums on the Internet, and rose care websites like: • www.rosemania.com • www.rosecare.com • www.saveonchemicals.com • www.growersupply.com • www.southernag.com • www.pestproducts.com • And links from www.chattanoogarose.org

  37. What about generics?... • Pesticides like Compass, Forbid and Kontos are “on-patent” and command high prices • Generics are pesticides that have come “off-patent” like Merit, Avid and Banner Maxx • Generics often cost less than 50% of the cost of the “on-patent” products

  38. Some examples of generics • Lucid = Avid -- $145 vs. $285 (quart) • Zenith = Merit -- $10 vs. $60 (2oz) • Honor Guard = Banner Maxx -- $31 vs. $70 (pint) • OHP 6672 = Cleary’s 3336F -- $29 vs. $73 (quart) • Bifen I/T = Talstar -- $42 vs. $80 (quart)

  39. RTU and OTC Products • Products available at Lowe’s, Home Depot, etc. • Bayer Advanced Garden Products • www.bayeradvanced.com • Rose & Flower Insect Killer • A combination of Merit and Tempo • Available in spray bottle, hose-end sprayer and concentrate • 2 in 1 Systemic Rose & Flower Care • Granules sprinkled around bush and watered-in • 12-18-6 fertilizer • Orthene-like systemic insecticide - disulfoton

  40. RTU and OTC Products (Cont.) • More Bayer Advanced Garden Products • All-in-One Rose & Flower Care • Merit insecticide plus Banner Maxx fungicide • 9-14-9 fertilizer • Mixed 4 tbsp/quart and used as a drench • Bayer Advanced Disease Control • Concentrate diluted 1.5 tbsp/gallon to spray • Active ingredient same as Banner Maxx

  41. Some Other RTU/OTC Products • Safer Brand 3 in 1 Garden Spray – uses fatty acids, sulfur and neem oil (MOA 6) to create an environmentally safe insecticide, fungicide and miticide • Green Light Bioganic Organic Rose & Flower Ready-to-Use – uses plant oils (MOA 6) to create an environmentally safe insecticide, fungicide and miticide • Ortho Orthenex Insect & Disease Control – active ingredients are acephate (Orthene) and triforine (same chemical group as Banner Maxx) • GardenTech Sevin – OTC version of this very effective insecticide (MOA 1)

  42. Pesticide Storage • Rules for safe storage: • Be sure that the caps on all pesticide containers are securely sealed, and use the original container whenever possible. • Keep pesticides at “room temperature” in a locked room and out of reach of children or animals. • Do not carry over pesticide products whose labels are lost or illegible. • Store glass bottles in a metal or plastic container -- in case the glass breaks its contents are contained. • As a precaution store water soluble bags (e.g., Zyban) in a waterproof container. • Try to purchase pesticides in a container size small enough that the product will be used up during one growing season – in view of the shelf life limitations this could prove to be the most economical way to stock your chemical arsenal.

  43. Pesticide Shelf Life • Indicators of pesticide breakdown: • Emulsifiable Concentrates – addition of water does not produce a milky solution. • Emulsified in Water -- the concentrate has separated and shaking or the addition of water does not produce a milky solution. • Wettable Powders – powder has formed lumps and will not mix or disperse in water. • Water Dispersible Granules – not as likely to lump, but should continue to mix easily with or disperse in water. • Don’t rely on powders stored more than two years and liquids more than three

  44. Pesticide Disposal • When the pesticide is no longer effective DON’T throw it in the trash • Many of the chemicals we use are real threats to our groundwater (e.g., Merit) • Empty containers at local Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Center • Wood Recycling Facility, 3925 North Hawthorne Street in Chattanooga • Triple-rinse recyclable containers – apply rinse water to garden

  45. And, Finally...Adjuvants • Adjuvant – serving to help or assist – something to make a spray more effective • Stirrup M – a pheromone (sexual attractant) that draws spider mites to any spray in which it’s mixed • Indicate 5 – adjusts pH of spray water and serves as a spreader-sticker – most sprays more effective in a slightly acidic liquid • Hi-Yield Spreader-Sticker (or any other OTC brand) – makes spray adhere to foliage instead of dribbling off