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Integrated Pest Management IPM

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  1. Integrated Pest ManagementIPM IPM is a sustainable approach to managing pests through biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes risks to the community.

  2. Integrated Pest ManagementIPM To understand this concept, it is important to understand the environmental variables around us. What are the variables in your environment?

  3. TRUE or FALSE A typical home garden has more pesticides (acre for acre) on it than a farmer’s field

  4. TRUEor FALSE A typical home garden has more pesticide (acre for acre) in it than a farmer’s field

  5. If a pesticide is natural, it can not harm you. TRUE or FALSE

  6. If a pesticide is natural it can not harm you. TRUE or FALSE

  7. TRUE or FALSE • Since most insects are harmful they should be removed from your yard.

  8. TRUE or FALSE • Since most insects are harmful they should be removed from your yard.

  9. Of all insect species in the world Less than 1% Considered to be pests Beneficial or not considered to be pests (> 99%)

  10. IPM stands for A) Inactive produce markets B) Integrated pest management C) Insects pests and moles D) Industrial pesticide makers

  11. IPM stands for: • Inactive produce markets • Integrated pest management • Insects pests and moles • Industrial pesticide makers

  12. What is IPM??? • IPM (integrated pest management) • is a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, chemical, cultural, and physical tools • in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks. From: Anonymous. 1994 Integrated Pest Management Practices in 1991 Fruits and Nuts, RTD Updates: Pest Management, USDA-ERS, 8pp.

  13. What is a Pest? A plant or animal that is out of place This includes: Diseases, Weeds, Arthropods, Reptiles, Mammals, etc.

  14. Is this a pest?

  15. Is this a pest? • That depends if it‘s in your garden or your house?

  16. Does this person have a pest problem?

  17. Does this person have a pest problem? • Depends on the threshold of damage they will put up with

  18. Pest management toolbox Biological control Chemical control Cultural control Physical control

  19. Biological Control • The use of living organisms to control pests • Predators • Parasites • Pathogens

  20. Predators • Kill many prey • often generalists rather than specialists • 200,000 species

  21. Predators Lady Beetle eating an Aphid

  22. Predators A spider mite feeding on a pest, two spotted spider mite

  23. Predators Predaceous stink bug piercing caterpillar

  24. Predators

  25. Predators

  26. Predators

  27. Predators • General Rule • Bigger • Badder • Fewer • Faster Above: syrphid fly on daisy Below: syrphid fly eating an aphid long legged fly eating an aphid

  28. EGG Complete Metamorphosis LARVA ADULT PUPA

  29. Lady Bird Beetle

  30. Predators Lacewing eggs Adult Lacewing Lacewing larvae ready to feed on aphids

  31. Simple Metamorphosis

  32. Biological Control • The use of living organisms to control pests • Predators • Parasitoids • Pathogens

  33. Parasitoids Unlike parasites which usually have multiple hosts and do not kill their prey, parasitoids are all host specific and always kill their prey.

  34. Parasitoids parasitoid wasp ovipositing its eggs into fly larvae. beet armyworm with exit hole from parasitoid wasp

  35. Parasitoids

  36. Parasites

  37. Parasitoids • Very specialized • Develop from eggs laid in or on host • very stealthy and often small • leave a trail of bodies Healthy aphids Parasitized aphids

  38. Aphid Mummies

  39. Parasite

  40. A Phorid fly egg hatches and migrates to the ant’s head, where it releases chemicals which decapitate the host

  41. Biological Control • The use of living organisms to control pests • Predators • Parasites • Pathogens

  42. Pathogens • Usually very specific • leave a trail of bodies • may take a few days to provide control (lag time) • kill, reduce reproduction, reduce insect health

  43. Pathogens usually advertised as naturally occurring insect diseases caused by bacteria protozoa viruses and fungi BT Nosema

  44. Chemical control • Should be used as a last resort and with the lowest impact on natural enemies and YOU!

  45. Pest Management Prior to the 2nd World War • Several Approaches • Manual and physical control methods • Cultural control • Biological control • 4. Chemical control (metal & plant derivatives)

  46. Pest Management After World War 2 • Development of nerve gases…discovered to be insecticidal • Discovery of synthetic, organic insecticides Organochlorines (DDT - wide spectrum OP’s (parathion) Carbamates

  47. Widespread Use of Pesticides (1945 - 1980) • By 1980, more than 900 registered insecticides • Insecticides were a popular choice for pest • management because they were: • a. Cheap • b. Effective in small quantities • c. Persistent • d. Broad spectrum • e. Easy to use • f. Fit in calendar spray schedules

  48. Result of widespread insecticide use • Suppression of target pests (at one time, up to 98% • reduction) from single application.

  49.         

  50.         