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the Animal kingdom

the Animal kingdom

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the Animal kingdom

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  1. the Animal kingdom A Summary of Chapters 26-34

  2. What is an animal? • Kingdom Animalia • Multicellular • Eukaryotic • Heterotrophs • No cell walls

  3. Animal Evolution • Complex animals • High levels of cell specialization • Internal body organization • Bilateral symmetry • Cephalization • Body cavity

  4. Sponges • Multicellular • Heterotrophic • Lack cell walls • But contain few specialized cells • Water flow provides a simple mechanism for feeding, respiration, circulation, and excretion.

  5. Cnidarians • Soft-bodied, carnivorous animals with stinging tentacles around the mouth • nematocysts • Simplest animal with both symmetry and specialized tissues • Life stages are polyp and medusa • Include jellyfish, hydra, sea anemones, & corals

  6. Flatworms • Soft, flattened worms with tissues and internal organ systems • No body cavity • coelom • Simplest animals to have three embryonic germ layers, bi-symmetry, and cephalization • Most are hermaphrodites

  7. Tubellarians, Flukes, and Tapeworms

  8. Roundworms • Unsegmented worms with pseudocoelems and digestive systems with a mouth and an anus

  9. Annelids • Worms with segmented bodies and a true coelom lined with mesoderm • Include earthworms, leeches (external parasites), and polychaetes (marine)

  10. Mollusks • Soft-bodies with an internal or external shell • Body Plan • Foot, mantle, shell, and a visceral mass • Gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods

  11. Types of Mollusks • Gastropods • Shell-less or single shelled • Move using a muscular foot • Bivalves • Two shells held together by powerful muscle(s) • Cephalopods • Soft-bodied • Head attached to foot and tentacles • Most active mollusks

  12. Arthropods • Segmented bodies • Tough exoskeleton • Jointed appendages • Evolution has led to fewer segments and highly specialized appendages. • Classified by the number and structure of segments and appendages.

  13. Arthropods • Molting occurs as they outgrow their exoskeletons • Vulnerablity increases at this time

  14. Crustaceans • Two pairs of antennae • 2-3 body sections • Mandibles- chewing mouth parts

  15. Chelicerates • Mouthparts called chelicerae- fangs • 2 body sections • 4 pairs of walking legs

  16. Uniramians • Jaws • One pair of antennae • Unbranched appendages

  17. Insects • Body divided into 3 parts- head, thorax, abdomen • 3 pairs of legs attached to thorax • Undergo metamorphosis • Can have complex “societies”

  18. Echinoderms • Spiny skin • Internal skeleton • Water vascular system • Respiration, circulation, and movement • Tube feet • suction-cups • Five part radial symmetry (adults)

  19. Chordates • Have a hollow nerve cord; a notochord; pharyngeal pouches; and a tail for at least part of its life • There are only 2 groups of non- vertebrate chordates • Lancelets • Tunicates

  20. Fishes • Aquatic vertebrates with fins, scales, and gills • Jawless fish • Cartilaginous fish • Bony fish

  21. Amphibians • Lives in water as a larva and land as an adult • Moist skin • Lacks scales and claws • Include salamanders, frogs and toads, and caecilians

  22. Reptiles • Scaly skin, lungs, and soft eggs • Exothermic • Includes lizards, snakes, crocodilians, turtles and tortoises, and tuatara

  23. Birds • Reptile-like animals that are endothermic • Feathers, two legs with scales, and front limbs modified for flight • Many features allow them to fly • Feathers, lightweight bones, strong chest muscles

  24. Mammals • Hair • Breathe air • Produce milk • 4-chambered hearts • Endotherms • Complex organ systems that maintain homeostasis

  25. Mammal Diversity • Monotremes- lay eggs • Marsupials- bear live, underdeveloped young which mature in pouches • Placentals- bear live more mature young

  26. Animal Behavior • COMING SOON!