Possible exam questions • Identify two areas of life, one from the developing and one from the developed world, where there is gender inequality. Illustrate your answer with reference to evidence from each area identified. • Identify one area of life in the developed and one in the developing world where there is evidence of inequality. Illustrate your answer with reference to appropriate evidence for each area identified.
What areas can you think of in which you feel woman are under represented or experience discrimination?
Historical problems with sociology and gender • Why in the past were female issues under represented in sociological study? • Malestream • Social Stratification
Past Research • Most of the theories ignore gender • Modernisation is essentially functionalism and as such the nuclear family is seen as most suitable for modern society • Dependency and World Systems focus on relations between countries rather than social groups • Women’s input is overlooked in GDP – household work, unpaid labour, childcare
Millennium Development • MDG3 – To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
Gender and the developing world • The UN now has a gender development index (similar to the HDI) • Make a list of questions you could ask about women in a country which could indicate how equal the genders are in a country • Marriage decisions • Movement • Education • Family • Fertility
Education • MDG 2 – To achieve universal primary education
Gender and Education • Women are far less likely to be educated • Women are far less likely to be educated to the same levels • This may be due to cultural values or employment/family needs
Education and Gender • 2/3 of the worlds illiterate persons are women • Women are often trapped in the lowest paid jobs • Women only own 1% of global wealth • 18.5 million women suffer preventable problems during pregnancy and childbirth leaving them with long term difficulties • Women make up only 16% of parliamentarians worldwide
How gender equality solves poverty - Education • It allows greater financial success and freedom • Better educated women are likely to be healthier and less likely to be exploited • It leads to a better educated next generation • Women are aware of their rights • Children receive higher levels of nutrition • There is a greater pool of women capable of taking on roles in politics • It is a human right
Can it make it worse? • If there are no jobs what is the point in the education program? • Education costs a huge amount so if it is not successful it is a waste -resources could be spent more effectively
Employment and Gender • Women are often employed in the lowest paid jobs or the informal sector • Women are often bared from owning or inheriting property and from gaining finance • Men will often move to cities in hope of work leaving women and children behind to work the land
Employment and Gender • Women are often the ones taken advantage of especially in sweat shops in South East Asia (women's low status makes them cheap) • Women are often the victims of the sex trade because they lack legitimate employment opportunities • Women only own 1% of global wealth • Men are seen as more financially rewarding assets to a family leading to selective abortion
How gender equality solves poverty - Employment • Increases taxed workforce • Independence means greater decision making power and the ability to control their lives more leading to better healthcare etc. • Fewer women are pushed into poverty because of inequality in employment and inheritance laws
Can it make it worse? • Schemes, such as micro credit, have leant to women but these women have been unable to make the most of it because of cultural conditions (Pearson 2000)