Gender and Gender Inequality (3/24). 1.To what degree is the U.S. characterized by institutional sexism, today? (Kanter) 2. Affirmative action (begin). How much gender inequality is there in the United States today?. White males are abut 1/3 of the population but they make up:
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1.To what degree is the U.S. characterized by institutional sexism, today? (Kanter)
2. Affirmative action (begin)
OWN INCOME by SEX
MALE FEMALE TOTAL
UNDER 6K 55 136 191
28.8% 71.2% 100.0%
6K-19,999 178 334 512
34.8% 65.2% 100.0%
20K-24999 84 116 200
42.0% 58.0% 100.0%
25K & UP 573 342 915
62.6% 37.4% 100.0%
Missing 339 660 999
TOTAL 890 928 1818
Women constitute 2/3 of those making less than $20,000; men constitute 2/3 of those making more than $25,000
SEX by OWN INCOME
UNDER 6K 6K-19,999 20K-24999 25K & UP Missing TOTAL
MALE 55 178 84 573 339 890
6.2% 20.0% 9.4% 64.4% 100.0%
FEMALE 136 334 116 342 660 928
14.7% 36.0% 12.5% 36.9% 100.0%
TOTAL 191 512 200 915 999 1818
10.5% 28.2% 11.0% 50.3%
Preservation of i.e. family
Social functions economy
Any erosion of the central social institutions leads to movements to return to arrangements generating gender inequality.
Reproduction and reinforcement of gender inequality
Conflict theorists argue that the unfair and dysfunctional consequences of sexism ultimately lead to movements to reverse gender inequality.
Hyper-visibility and lack of models or supports
Tokenism (i.e. small numbers of women
Lack of success by the tokens
Small numbers produces small numbers.
A group’s success produces more success; a group’s failure produces more failure.
Women perceived in terms of family roles
Women largely absent from managerial positions
Lack of evaluation of managerial competence
Lack of role models produces stereotyping and suspicion that is a self-fulfilling prophecy that produces lack of role models.
Women shift priorities to friendships and family roles
Women given menial and unrewarding positions
Lack of female success in executive positions
Lack of responsibility, lack of autonomy, or low expectations of success all cause people to shift their motivations to shperes where they expect higher reward.