Mexico Public Policy Declan Tidd and Katie Woodliff AP Comparative Government- 1A
Population Issues Estimated population of over 113 million Eleventh most populated country - Overpopulation Mexico city has a growing population of 22 million– overpopulation -vast influx of poor into Mexico city -build rural homes in hills in the city
Population Issues 1940 to 1980- number of Mexicans more than quadrupled from under 20 million to over 80 million. 1960s and 1970s the population growth was among the world’s fastest– 3.3% a year Concerns about overpopulation resulted in a huge planning program which included advertising and medical officials -As result, the average number of children per woman dropped from 5.7 (1976) to about 2.2 (2010). Growing gap between the rich and the poor– consequence of rapid economic growth
Foreign Affairs Mexico has played a minor role in international affairs through most of its history Mexico's role in international affairs was limited until the 1970s, because the country needed to concentrate on domestic issues, including internal stability and economic growth. After 1982, the government decreased restrictions on foreign ownership of property, and reduced tariffs The government began to encourage Mexican private industries to produce goods for export with a series of incentives Mexico’s foreign policy is still concerned with the United States more than any other country
Foreign Affairs However, Mexico has recently joined international organizations including the UN, WTO, and GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) Signed trade pacts with many Latin American and European countries NAFTA signed in 1995 eliminated trade barriers Maquiladora- 1960, manufacturing zone created in northern Mexico near USA border. -Produced consumer goods for U.S -Plants created to transform imported raw materials into finished industrial products Drug trafficking- major problem for US and Mexico; brings corruption, violence, and wealth to Mexico
Policy Making Factions • Sexenio- six-year office term is extremely important in political life • New presidents can introduce extensive change in positions within government • Ability to build “teams” of middle-high level officials who share the same ideas about public policy • With the bureaucracy, the president is focal point of policy making • Congress has recently proven to be a more active policy maker—introduces its own bills • Significant limits on the president when policy is being implemented • At times policies are not implemented because public officials at the lower levels disagree with what is being put into place
Environment One of Mexico’s most widespread environmental problems is soil erosion, which contributes to deforestation Mexico City suffers from intense smog from thousands of factories, motor vehicles, and the open burning of garbage, making it one of the most polluted cities Cities along the Mexican border suffer from severe air pollution and water damage. 76% of the air pollution is caused by transportation vehicles Beginning in the mid-1980s, the government enacted numerous antipollution policies in Mexico– varied success rates– pollution rates did not really decrease.
Energy • Energy production in Mexico is managed by state owned companies - The Federal Commission of Electricity -PEMEX • PEMEX- The public company in charge of exploration, extraction, transportation and marketing of crude oil and natural gas. It also manages the distribution and refining of petroleum products. -One of the largest companies in the world -In early 2008, a reform was announced to strengthen government regulation on the oil industry and to give more budget autonomy to PEMEX • Mexico is the sixth largest oil producer in the world • In 2000, oil exports accounted for 7.3% of total exports compared to 62% in 1980.
GDP In 2012 Mexico’s GDP was $1.758 trillion, which was 12th in the world, according to the CIA World Factbook The GDP has been growing, but at a slower rate each year. In 2012 it grew 3.8%, which was 90th in the world 62% of Mexico’s economy is service based. Countries with service heavy economies are typically more developed than agricultural or industrial countries. To put these numbers in perspective, the USA has a GDP of over $16 trillion and our economy is 80% service.
GNI per capita- PPP Gross National Income per capita at Purchasing Power Parity- Mexico’s is $15,120- 61st in the world The worlds GNI is $11,579, and the Democratic Republic of Congo has the lowest GNI with $350
HDI • The Human Development Index is a measure of a countries human development. • It is based on three things • Life expectancy • Access to knowledge • Standard of living
HDI Mexico’s HDI is 57 out of 187 countries measured The current life expectancy is 77 years old, which is 10 years higher than it was in 1980 The average child will be in school for 8.5 years- this number was 4 in 1980 Mexico’s HDI is actually relatively high for Latin American countries. Brazil is ranked 84th and Columbia is ranked 87th