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Chapter 22
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  1. Chapter 22 Tidy Plans, Ugly Realities: The Civil War Through 1862

  2. The Art and Science of War • Art of War influences commanders • Focus on occupying high ground • Focus on taking enemy cities • Retreat when necessary • Jomini’s 12 models of war • The Armies • Calvary: for reconnaissance • Artillery: weakens enemy • Infantry: backbone of army • Also support units

  3. The Art and Science of War(cont.’d) • Infantry • Brigades of 2,000–3,000 • Form double lines of 1,000 yards • Advance into enemy fire • Then fight hand-to-hand • Most battles in dense woods • Yanks and Rebs • Most between 17 and 25 • From all states, social classes • Draft exempts upper class • Anti-draft riots in New York City • Draft dodgers in South • Some bounty hunters • High desertion rates • Shirking duty not common

  4. The Art and Science of War(cont.’d) • Women in the Civil War • Unofficially serve as spies • Harriet Tubman • Rose O’Neal Greenhow • Officially serve as nurses • Elizabeth Blackwell first doctor • Founded U.S. Sanitary Commission • Clara Barton • Fill lower ranks of federal bureaucracy

  5. The Sobering Campaign of 1861 • First Battle of Manassas (Bull Run) • Both sides thought war would be short • First battle 20 miles from Washington • South wins, Union forces flee in panic • South fails to attack Washington • South celebrates victory • Stonewall Jackson hero for South • Pierre Beauregard loses respect • South disorganized even in victory

  6. Map of the Battle of Bull Run

  7. Sobering Campaign of 1861 (cont.’d) • Consequences of Manassas (Bull Run) • South becomes overconfident • North prepares for long fight • George McClellan given command of Army of Potomac • Northern strategy • Defend Washington; take Richmond • Split Confederacy by taking Mississippi River • Blockade southern coastline • Mismatch • North had population advantage of 22 to 9 million • Industry in north • Railroads mainly in the north • Southerners knew the battleground • Interior lines in the south • More southerners had military training especially officers

  8. Sobering Campaign of 1861 (cont.’d) • Southern hope for help from abroad fails • Southern strategy = Hold off North until help comes from abroad • Hope North grows weary of fighting • France decides to intervene in Mexico • British government pro-Confederate • British people anti-slavery • Britain never helps South • Jefferson Davis tries to force Britain’s hand • Withholds sale of cotton • British mills stockpile cotton before war • British need grain more than cotton

  9. Sobering Campaign of 1861 (cont.’d) • Diplomacy • U.S. captures Confederate diplomats on British ship, Trent • Britain threatens war • British build ships for South • U.S. uses diplomacy to keep Britain out of the war

  10. 1862 and Stalemate • Copperheads: Northern sympathizers of South • Defeatists: Believe war is not worth the effort • Lincoln suspends writ of habeas corpus • Jails many dissenters, weakens their effectiveness • War in the West • Union moves troops to Kentucky • Union captures Forts Grant and Donelson • Next major battle at Shiloh, Tennessee • North wins in incredibly bloody battle

  11. Map of the War in the West

  12. 1862 and Stalemate(cont.’d) • War at sea • Confederates use commerce raiders • Confederates try to outrun North’s blockade • South’s Merrimack, North’s Monitor ironclad ships • March 9, 1862 first clash of ironclad ships • North builds more ironclad ships; South lacks resources • McClellan has the “slows” • Army well-trained and equipped • McClellan reluctant to attack • McClellan was Democrat and disliked Lincoln’s war policy • Lincoln frustrated with McClellan

  13. 1862 and Stalemate(cont.’d) • Peninsula Campaign • Union troops between York and James Rivers • McClellan delays; South maneuvers • 7-day battle; Lincoln recalls troops • Lincoln replaces McClellan • Antietam • Eastern theater stalemates • South invades Maryland • North stops south of Antietam • Lee retreats to Virginia

  14. Maps of McClellan’s Peninsula Campaign and 7-Day Battles

  15. 1862 and Stalemate(cont.’d) • Emancipation Proclamation • Lincoln’s war aim to save Union • Antislavery sentiment growing • Lincoln frees slaves in states fighting Union • Effective January 1, 1863 • Slavery: The Beginning of the End • Reassures slave states • Allows North to use black troops • Improves morale • Mollifies Radical Republicans

  16. 1862 and Stalemate(cont.’d) • Stalemate renewed • McClellan replaced with Anthony Burnside • Burnside loses at Fredericksburg, Virginia • War bogs down in West • War stalemates as both sides retreat for winter

  17. Map of Stalemate in the East

  18. Discussion Questions • What were the similarities and differences between the armies of the North and South at the start of the war? • Examine the First Battle of Manassas. Why did the South win? Was it possible for this battle to have ended the war? • What advantages and handicaps did both sides have at the beginning of the war? • Was the Emancipation Proclamation the great writing from the heart of a great man, or a sly political move to help win the war?