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Chapter 22. Section 1- Urbanization and Urban Growth. Urban and Rural Areas. Urban or metropolitan area Town and its adjacent suburbs Rural area Area with population over 2,500 people Village Rural homes linked together by culture and surviving off of local natural resources City

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chapter 22

Chapter 22

Section 1- Urbanization and Urban Growth

urban and rural areas
Urban and Rural Areas
  • Urban or metropolitan area
    • Town and its adjacent suburbs
  • Rural area
    • Area with population over 2,500 people
  • Village
    • Rural homes linked together by culture and surviving off of local natural resources
  • City
    • Larger group of people that depend on resources from other areas
urban growth
Urban Growth
  • Natural increase- more births than deaths
  • Immigration
    • Rural to urban areas
      • Poverty
      • Lack of land
      • Declining agriculture jobs
      • Famine
      • War
patterns of urban growth today
Patterns of Urban Growth Today
  • Population living in urban areas is increasing
  • Number of large cities is mushrooming
  • Urbanization and urban population are increasing rapidly in developing countries
  • Poverty is becoming urbanized in developing countries
major urban problems in us
Major Urban Problems in US
  • Many urban environmental problems in US reduced since 1920
  • People have better working and living conditions
  • Better air and water quality
  • Better sanitation, public water supplies, and medical care lowered death rates
  • By having most of the population in urban areas, we are able to protect the country’s biodiversity
major urban problems in us cont
Major Urban Problems in US (cont.)
  • Cities have
    • deteriorating services
    • Aging infrastructure
    • Rising poverty
  • Urban sprawl
    • Ample land for expansion
    • Federal and state funding for highways
    • Low-cost gas
Conventional Land Use Planning
  • Terms: land-use planning, zoning
  • All development needs some planning for future growth – but often plans focus on cost and lead to uncontrolled urban sprawl and economic problems.
  • Property tax laws encourage using tools like zoning to increase profit rather than to create mixed areas (with housing, businesses etc) or preserve natural land
Smart Growth Can Work
  • Terms: smart growth, conservation easements, brown fields
  • With the right rules and regulations, our cities and towns can grow while also becoming more sustainable and reducing air pollution within congested cities
  • Can actually provide MORE jobs and economic growth than conventional land use planning
  • Example: Portland, Oregon
Preserving and Using Open Space
  • Terms: urban growth boundaries, greenbelts
  • Open space within and connected to cities with urban growth boundaries, greenbelts and municipal parks
New Urbanism is Growing
  • Terms: cluster development
  • Principles of New Urbanism:
      • Walkability: 10 minutes
      • Mixed-use and diversity: variety of buildings and people
      • Quality urban design: aesthetics
      • Smart Transportation: mass transit
The Ecocity Concept: Cities for People Not Cars
  • The problem isn’t urban growth but rather failure to make cities more sustainable and livable
  • Basic idea: Efficiency standards, local products, renewable energy, preserve nature
  • Fit the goals of new urbanism, but go beyond that
  • Dongtan, China: Goals
    • First carbon neutral city
    • Community of 80,000 by 2020
    • Ecological footprint half that of comparable cities
    • “urban laboratories to experiment”
The Ecovillage Movement is Growing
  • Terms: ecovillage Movement
  • Small groups are coming together, using a variety to methods to make pockets of sustainability – even within large and unsustainable cities

living in cities
Living in Cities
  • Awesome because:
    • Centers for commerce, industry, and transportation
    • People in cities have longer life spans
    • Recycling is easier because materials are highly concentrated
    • Takes small amount of land so disturbs little biodiversity
cities are also terrible
Cities are also terrible




Solid wastes

  • High Ecological Footprints
    • Area disturbed not just physical space occupied
    • Removes people from nature
      • Will not be passionate enough about nature to protect it
  • No vegetation
    • No benefits from plants
      • Absorbing pollutants, Producing oxygen, Providing habitats
  • Water Issues
    • Large demand but not a lot of water
      • Take water away from rural areas
    • Prone to flooding
      • Destroyed wetlands to build many cities
    • Dry areas can experience aquifer depletion and droughts

Waste heat


Air pollutants


Water pollutants

Raw materials

Greenhouse gases

Manufactured goods

Manufactured goods






cities and stuff cont
Cities and stuff cont.
  • Concentrated pollution and Health Risks
    • Pollutants cannot be dispersed/diluted b/c small area
    • High CO2 Concentration
      • Lots of cars
      • Can disrupt Carbon and Nitrogen cycle
  • Noise Pollution
    • Cause hearing loss
    • Can cause stress and accidents
  • Differing Climate and Light Pollution
    • Heat generated by cities
    • Artificial light produced
city spread
City Spread
  • Dispersed vs. Concentrated
    • Dispersed
      • Most of cities in US
      • Forces use of more cars
      • Allows pollutants to be diluted more easily
    • Concentrated
      • People can walk or use public transportation more
      • Higher concentration of pollutants
        • Higher health risks
  • Why they’re bad
    • Accidents
    • CO2 Pollution
    • Infrastructure takes up a lot of space
  • Reducing use
    • Full Cost Pricing
      • Including environmental impact in the price
      • Will increase price of gasoline so people will drive less
    • Government allocate more money to public transportation
      • Not very available in many major cities
  • Bikes
    • Better for physical fitness
    • No pollutants
    • Cheap
  • Railway systems
    • Most cities had light-rail system but got rid of it to promote cars
    • Rapid rail systems
      • Trains between urban areas
      • Can be expensive though
  • US used to be awesome
    • Now it sucks because we got rid of all of our light rail systems
      • Thought the car would be more important