Chapter 22 Review and Discussion
Moscow Rises In Power • During the Mongol period, the princes of Moscow steadily increased their power. 2. The Russian Orthodox moves to Moscow eventually the seat of power is moved there.
Ivan the Great: First Tsar • Ivan III, refused to pay Mongol tribute • Won many battles and recovered lost territory • Suppressed boyar powers • claimed the leadership of the Eastern Orthodox Empire • Took the title czar (tsar) the Russian word for Caesar
Ivan IV akaIvan the Terrible! • Grandson of Ivan the Great • Ruled from 1547-1584 Why Terrible? • he resorted to torture, exile, and execution to punish those who plotted against him • Significantly expanded Russia’s territory and Russia prospered!
His Family…. Tragic, read on… • In 1582 his daughter-in-law Elena appeared immodestly dressed and Ivan censured her. • His son Ivan Ivanovich rose to defend his wife, whereupon the tsar killed his son, his only possible respectable heir. • This left as heir Ivan’s feebleminded son Fyodor (reigned 1584-1598), the last Ryurikid ruler in a line that extended back seven centuries. • Another son, Dmitry, was considered illegitimate because his mother was Ivan's seventh wife (the church only permitted three marriages, and recognized none of Ivan’s later wives). • Dmitry either killed himself playing with a knife or was murdered in 1591
St. Basil’s Cathedral • Legend has it that Ivan the Terrible, who was Tsar of Russia at the time, • blinded the architect • when it was finished, • to prevent him from building anything as spectacular for any other king.
Late Medieval Russia Russia is in a Period of disorder: • Open to invasion • Isolated from Europe • Untouched by Renaissance or the Reformation • Enters the “Time of Troubles” - 1604-1613
Russian Monarchy Medieval Russia • group of clergy, nobles and townsmen chose a new czar • Romanov dynasty established with Mikhail Romanov • lasts until 1917 withthe Communist Revolution. Mikhail Romanov Romanov Crown
Russia Before Peter Look at the facts: • 10 million people, 8.5 serfs • Boyars (landowning nobles) control the court and government • Very Anti-Western European culture • Majority of population are uneducated
The Westernization of Russia • Goals • To modernize, westernize Russia • Establish absolute monarchy • Journeyed to Western Europe to learn… • Anatomy • Dentistry • Carpenter in shipyard • Government structure of English Parliament • Brought Experts to Russia • Technical experts, teachers, soldiers, and nobles
Peter the Great • Built a new capital at St. Petersburg and committed to a policy of westernization in Russia. • To impose his will, Peter became the most autocratic of Europe’s absolute monarchs. • No to political liberalization • Brought Russian Orthodox Church under his control and increased the burden of taxes and labor on the serfs • “Great Northern War” • broke Swedish control over the Baltic and established direct contact between Russia and Europe
Peter the Great’s Major Changes Requires European Dress & No Beards! Westernization of Russia Builds St. Petersburg Brought in Europe’s Technology and Craftsman Took control of church Made the boyars serve in the gov’t Modernized army Adopts Mercantilism
Catherine the Great r. 1762-1796 • Born in 1729 in Germany today modern day Poland • Gains the throne by “stealing it” (maybe) from her murdered husband, Peter III!
began state-sponsored education for boys and girls. • embraced and encouraged Western ideas and culture. • granted special privileges to the boyars. • Allows serfdom to continue • repressed peasant rebellions. • Built the world’s largest land empire Catherine’s Palace
Expansion of Russia, 1689-1796 Peter the Great: • created the largest standing army in Europe • On land won from Sweden, Peter built a magnificent new capital city, St. Petersburg. Catherine the Great: • gained a warm-water port on the Black Sea • agreed to partition Poland and gained the eastern portion.
Romanov Dynasty Heritage Moscow in 1810 Last Romanov Czar Murdered w/ family in 1917
Decline of the late Ming • Drop in annual temperatures between 1645 and 1700 • Led to agricultural distress, migration, distress, and uprising • Inflation caused by new world silver • Threats in the borders • From Mongols to the north and west • Suffered heavy losses by helping Koreans against Japanese invasions • Japanese pirates • Qing (Manchu) overthrew the Ming in 1644
Emperor Kangxi r. 1662-1722 • Intellectual prodigy and a successful military commander who expanded his territory and gave it a high degree of stability • Reign of 61 years makes him the longest reigning Emperor of China • Cultural diffusion • adapted Mongol system of political organization; the Tibetan practice of religious legitimization for rulers; Korean and Chinese agricultural policies; and European mapping and technology ( influenced by the Jesuits).
Order and Unity RestoredUnder the Tokugawas,1603-1868 • The Tokugawa shogunate was the longest period of uninterrupted peace Japan ever enjoyed.
Kabuki Theater • Created by Okuni, a woman but actors are now all men, why? • Tokugawa disapproved of women having an elevated status and forbid it! • Kabuki theater is famous for its brightly colored sets, exaggerated acting, and lively and emotional music and dance. • Kabuki is the most popular form of traditional Japanese theater. Kabuki Theater http://www.fix.co.jp/kabuki/kabuki.html Kabuki Theater Tour
Bunraku • Bunraku (puppet theater) traditional art form • Three puppeteers manipulate the puppets, creating subtle movements and expressions. • The performance is accompanied by shamisen music and narrative song
Review: The Culture of Feudal Japan PAINTING & PRINTMAKING LITERATURE THEATER Essays expressed Zen values or contained observations about human nature. Japanese poets adapted Chinese models, creating miniature poems called haiku. Japanese painters were influenced by Chinese landscape paintings, yet developed their own styles. Painters recreated historical events on scrolls. Woodblock prints used fresh colors and simple lines to convey town life. No plays presented Zen Buddhist themes or recounted fairy tales or power struggles. Kabuki, a popular new form of drama, combined drama, dance, and music. Puppet plays, known as bunraku, were popular.
“Forty-seven Ronin” incident 1702 • Showed basic flaw in the Shogunal government • Forced the military, to obey the civil law in the interests of building a centralized, standardized system of law (transformed from a military to a civil society)