Mastering the World Geography TEKS for the EOC Unit 5: Political Geography
Types of Governments • TEKS to be covered in this section • Government 14 (B) Compare how democracy, dictatorship, monarchy, republic, theocracy, and totalitarian systems operate in specific countries.
Types of Governments Monarchy • The oldest form of government • Main characteristic is that ruler inherits power • Monarchs – kings, emperors, or sultans fulfill their role as supreme ruler by surrounding themselves with followers and advisors
Types of Governments Monarchy • Constitutional Monarchy- Modern monarchies share power with elected legislature • Great Britain is an example of a Constitutional Monarchy
Types of Governments Republic • Republic- a government without a King or Queen • People in a republic choose representatives to make decisions for them • The United States is an example of a republic
Types of Governments Democracy • In a Democracy, government authority is based on the will of the people • First democracy was in Athens, Greece • Direct Democracy- People vote on issues directly (Greece) • Representative Democracy- people are chosen to vote for their people (Rome)
Types of Governments Dictatorship • Dictatorship- a single person or small group exercise power over their people • Dictators either seize power by force or are placed in authority by others IdiAmin, Former President and Dictator of Uganda
Types of Governments Totalitarian Systems • In a Totalitarian System of government, all aspects of life are controlled by the government • Examples are the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany
Types of Governments Theocracy • A Theocracy is a government run by religious leaders • Theocracy is an old form of government • *VERY IMPORTANT* • Muslim religious leaders seized power in Iran in 1979. Iran has both a theocratic and democratic style of government. The Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
Nations: Borders and Power • TEKS Covered in this Section • Government 13 The student understands the spatial characteristics of a variety of global political units. • Government 13 (B) Compare maps of voting patterns or political boundaries to make inferences about the distribution of political power. • Government 14 The student understands the processes that influence political divisions, relationships, and policies. • Government 14 (A) Analyze current events to infer the physical and human processes that lead to the formation of boundaries and other political divisions. • Government 14 (C) Analyze the human and physical factors that influence the power to control territory and resources, create conflict / war, and impact international political relations of sovereign nations such as China, the United States, Japan, and Russia and organized nation groups such as the United Nations, the European Union…
Nations: Borders and Power Political Regions • Each government has well established, clear boundaries • The area a government controls creates a Political Region • Levels of Government overlap • City, County, State, National
Nations: Borders and Power Political Maps • Political maps are designed to show boundaries separating different countries
Nations: Borders and Power International Relations and the “Balance of Power” • “Balance of Power” among sovereign nations is maintained by countries banding together to keep one country from becoming too powerful • World’s Major Powers include • United States • China • Russia • Japan • The United Nations • European Union
Political Processes and Citizenship • TEKS Covered in this Section • Citizenship 15 The student understands how different points of view and development of public policies and decision-making processes on the local, state and national, and international levels. • Citizenship 15 (A) Identify and give examples of different points of view that influence the development of public policies and decision-making processes on local, state, national, and international levels. • Citizenship 15 (B) Explain how citizenship, practices, public policies, and decision making may be influenced by cultural beliefs, including nationalism and patriotism. • Culture 18 Assess causes, effects, and perceptions of conflicts between groups of people, including … terrorism. • Social Studies Skills 21 (B) Locate places of contemporary geopolitical significance on a map. • Social Studies Skills 23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. • Social Studies Skills 23 (B) Use case studies … to identify contemporary challenges and to answer real-world questions. • Social Studies Skills 23 (C) Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.
Political Processes and Citizenship Decision-Making Processes and Government Policies Use the steps located to the left to analyze the following question Should Texas students have to pass an End-of-Course test in Geography? • The steps one takes to make a good decision are known as the Decision-Making Process • Identify the problem • Gather information • Consider options • Consider advantages and disadvantages • Select, implement, and evaluate the best option • Governments make difficult decisions on a daily basis and must weigh their options for the good of their people
Political Processes and Citizenship The Importance of Different Points of View • When government leaders make decisions affecting millions of people, it is important for them to consider different points of view • Government officials often consult with a variety of advisors and experts on a subject when making a decision
Political Processes and Citizenship The Impact of Cultural Beliefs • Cultural Beliefs have a tremendous impact on government decision-making • Nationalism- the belief that each people or ethnic group should have its own government or nation-state. Nationalists believe their nation to be superior to all others • Patriotism- loyalty and support for one’s country. Citizens should obey their country’s laws and rally to its defense.
Political Processes and Citizenship Different Viewpoints on International Issues Take a few minutes to look up info on the following international hot-spots • Russia and Chechnya • Israel and Palestine • Iran and Nuclear Energy