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  1. Mastering the TEKS for the World Geography EOC Unit 3: Human Geography

  2. Aspects of Culture • TEKS covered in this section • Culture 16 The student understands how the components of culture affect the way people live and shape the characteristics of regions. • Culture 16 (B) Describe elements of culture including language, religion, beliefs and customs, institutions, and technologies. • Culture 16 (C) Explain ways various groups of people perceive the characteristics of their own and other cultures, places, and regions differently. • Culture 17 The student understands the distribution, patterns, and characteristics of different cultures. • Culture 17 (A) Describe and compare patterns of culture such as language, religion, land use, education, and customs that make specific regions of the world distinctive. • Culture 17 (B) Describe major world religions including animism, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Sikhism, and their spatial distribution. • Culture 17 (C) Compare economic, political, or social opportunities in different cultures for women, ethnic and religious minorities, and other underrepresented populations. • Culture 17 (D) Evaluate the experiences and contributions of diverse groups to multicultural societies. • Culture 18 (C) Identify examples of cultures that maintain traditional ways …

  3. Aspects of Culture What is Culture? • Culture refers to a people’s way of life. • Customs – things people do, how they dress, what they eat, holidays, ect… • Roles – rules for proper behavior of individuals • Institutions – organizations developed by each society • Families • Schools • Governments • Cultural Perceptions • Culture affects lifestyles in a country and the way people perceive other cultures

  4. Aspects of Culture Major World Religions • Animism • Belief than many things in nature have their own spirit • Examples • Native Americans • African Tribes • Japanese Shintoism

  5. Aspects of Culture Major World Religions • Hinduism • Polytheistic • Reincarnation • Karma • Sacred Objects • Ganges River • Cows

  6. Aspects of Culture Major World Religions • Buddhism • Began in Nepal around 500 BC • Founder was Siddhartha Gautama • Basic beliefs based on self-denial and meditation • Reincarnation • Nirvana – a state of eternal peace and bliss

  7. Aspects of Culture Major World Religions • Judaism • One of three religions to rise in the Middle East • Began around 2000 BC • Monotheistic – belief in one god • Key Belief – Ten Commandments • Their holy book is the old testament in Christianity

  8. Aspects of Culture Major World Religions • Christianity • Based on Judaism and Jesus is their Messiah • Believe Jesus is the son of God and died for the sins of all mankind • Christians will reach heaven by accepting that Jesus died for their sins • Christian bible consists of Jewish bible plus a new testament comprised on Jesus and his disciples

  9. Aspects of Culture Major World Religions • Islam • “Islam” means “submission to Allah” • Founded by Mohammad around 600 AD • Five Pillars • Confession of Faith • Prayer • Charity • Fasting • Pilgrimage

  10. Aspects of Culture Major World Religions • Sikhism • Live mainly in Northern India • Combine beliefs of Hindu and Muslim • Believe in reincarnation yet only one god • Do not have a caste system like Hindus • Sikh men do not cut their hair so it is worn under a turban

  11. Cultural Regions • TEKS Covered in this Section • History 1 (A) Analyze the effects of physical and human geographic patterns…including significant physical features and environmental conditions that influenced migration patterns and shaped the distribution of culture groups today. • Geography 5 The student understands how political, economic, and social processes shape cultural patterns and characteristics in various places and regions. • Geography 5 (A) Analyze how the character of a place is related to its political, economic, social, and cultural elements. • Geography 9 The student understands the concept of region as an area of Earth’s surface with related geographic characteristics. • Geography 9 (A) Identify physical and / or human factors such as climate, vegetation, language, trade networks, political units, river systems, and religion that constitute a region. • Geography 9 (B) Describe different types of regions, including formal, functional, and perceptual regions. • Government 13 (A) Interpret maps to explain the division of land, including man-made and natural borders, into separate political units such as cities, states, or countries. • Culture 16 The student understands how the components of culture affect the way people live and shape the characteristics of regions. • Culture 16 (A) Describe distinctive cultural patterns and landscapes associated with different places in Texas, the United States, and other regions of the world, and how these patterns influenced the processes of innovation and diffusion. • Culture 16 (B) Describe elements of culture, including language, religion, beliefs and customs, institutions, and technologies. • Culture 17 The student understands the distribution, patterns, and characteristics of different cultures. • Culture 17 (A) Describe and compare patterns of culture such as language, religion, land use, education, and customs that make specific regions of the world distinctive. • Culture 17 (D) Evaluate the experiences and contributions of diverse groups to multicultural societies. • Social Studies Skills 21 (B) Locate places of contemporary geopolitical significance on a map. • Social Studies Skills 23 (A) Plan, Organize, and complete a research project that involves asking geographic questions; acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information; answering questions; and communicating results.

  12. Cultural Regions Cultural Regions • A Region is an area that has common characteristics that distinguish it from neighboring areas • A Cultural Region is defined by the common characteristics of the people living there

  13. Cultural Regions Examples • The Amish people of Pennsylvania • The Southern United States • The Middle East and North Africa

  14. Cultural Regions Types of Regions • Formal Regions • Clear boundaries • Functional Regions • Defined by one function that may cross political boundaries • Could be a city or metropolitan area • DFW is an example • Perceptual Region • Based on peoples attitudes about a place

  15. Cultural Regions World Cultural Regions • North America • English speaking • Democratically elected governments • Individual regions within share regional accents, favorite foods and fashion

  16. Cultural Regions World Cultural Regions • Latin America • Mostly Spanish speaking • Mostly Catholic • Colonized by Spain and Portugal • Most Latin Americans are a mixture of Native Americans and Europeans

  17. Cultural Regions World Cultural Regions • Europe • Borrows from the cultures of the Middle East and Africa due to its close location • Greeks were the first to develop their own civilization • Speak a multitude of languages • Mostly Christian

  18. Cultural Regions World Cultural Regions • Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States • Distinct culture developed from Communist ideas • Commonwealth of Independent States have similar histories and speak related languages

  19. Cultural Regions World Cultural Regions • North Africa • North of the Sahara Desert • Gave rise to one of the world’s first civilizations • People are mainly of Arab decent and are Muslim

  20. Cultural Regions World Cultural Regions • Sub-Saharan Africa • South of the Sahara Desert • Non-Arab population • Subjects of slave trade and European Colonial Rule • Large numbers of Separate ethnic groups and tribes • Often share similar religious beliefs and local animist traditions

  21. Cultural Regions World Cultural Regions • East Asia: China • World’s most populated country • Isolation gave rise to a unique culture

  22. Cultural Regions World Cultural Regions • East Asia: Japan • Four main islands and thousands of smaller ones • 85% of Japan is mountains • High population density • Lack of natural resources

  23. Cultural Regions World Cultural Regions • South Asia • Himalayan Mountains separate the Indian Subcontinent from the rest of Asia • India is the world’s second most populated country • Mostly Hindu, yet some Muslim influence to northwest helped create Sikhism

  24. Cultural Regions World Cultural Regions • Southeast Asia • Large mix of peoples including Chinese, Arabs, and Indians • Leading spice importer

  25. Cultural Regions World Cultural Regions • Australia and Oceania • Australia is the only country to occupy an entire continent • Former British colony • Aboriginal people are native • Quite a bit of racism between whites and aboriginals • Desert interior very sparsely populated, most people live by the coast

  26. Demography • TEKS Covered in this section • Geography 6 The student understands the types, patterns, and processes of settlement. • Geography 6 (A) Locate and describe human and physical features that influence the size and distribution of settlements. • Geography 6 (B) Explain the processes that have caused changes in settlement patterns, including urbanization, transportation, access to and availability of resources, and economic activities. • Geography 7 The student understands the growth, distribution, movement, and characteristics of world population. • Geography 7 (A) Construct and analyze population pyramids and use other data, graphics, and maps to describe the population characteristics of different societies and to predict future population trends.

  27. Demography Factors Influencing Where People Settle • Physical Factors • Population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh water sources • Two-thirds of our population lives within 500 miles of the ocean • Population is typically sparse in extremely dry, wet, cold or mountainous areas

  28. Demography Factors Influencing Where People Settle • Human Factors • The need to establish a capital city in a central location • As technology improves, people may move to an area despite physical barriers

  29. Demography Population Density Maps • Uses dots or colors to indicate where major towns and cities are located • Read the key to evaluate the number of people living in a given area

  30. Demography Patterns in the size and distribution of cities • Suburbs • Develop outside of cities • Form a satellite around the original city • Irving is a suburb of Dallas • Squatter Settlements or Shanty Towns • Usually found outside a city • People live in dwelling made from scrap material

  31. Demography Population Pyramids • Typically show males on the left and females on the right • Show trends in population • Can show the difference between and developed and developing society

  32. Migration • TEKS Covered in this Section • History 1 (A) Analyze the effects of physical and human geographic patterns … including significant physical features and environmental conditions that influenced migration patterns and shaped the distribution of the culture groups today. • Geography 7 (B) Explain how political, economic, social, and environmental push and pull factors and physical geography affect the routes and flows of human migration.

  33. Migration Why People Migrate • Push Factors • Oppression • Poverty • Political Conflicts • Environmental Factors • Pull Factors • Freedom • Economic Opportunity • Cultural Ties

  34. Migration Social Factors • Religious Persecution • Jews were driven from Israel during the Roman Empire • Political Reasons • Cuban’s sailed on homemade boats to the U.S. to flee the dictatorship of Fidel Castro

  35. Migration Social Factors • People also migrate when they are persecuted for being members of a particular ethnic group • Rwandan Genocide • Holocaust

  36. Migration Economic Motives • People that live in extreme poverty move in search of a better life