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Quantum Computing: A Great Science in the Making

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  1. Quantum Computing:A Great Science in the Making Andrew Chi-Chih Yao Tsinghua University

  2. Make the case:Quantum Computing is Great Science What is quantum computing? Why many find it so exciting? 2

  3. Paradigms for Great Science 3

  4. Paradigms for Great Science 1) X-Ray Crystallography • 1895, Roentgen, discovered X-rays • 1912, von Laue, confirmed X-ray diffraction Crystal X-ray

  5. Paradigms for Great Science • X-Ray Crystallography • 1913, W. Henry Bragg and W. Lawrence Bragg, derived math formula to determine crystal structures • 1920s, structures of metals and inorganic molecules • 1937-1954, Hodgkin, biological molecules • 1950s, Perutz & Kendrew, myoglobin structure • 1950s, Crick, Watson, Wilkins, Franklin, Double Helix • 1960 – present, many more molecules

  6. Macro-Biological Molecules 6

  7. Paradigms for Great Science 2) Computers • 1901, Hilbert, mechanization of proofs in math • 1936, Turing, invented Turing machine model • 1945, von Neumann, electronic computer design • 1940-50s, Shockley, Bardeen & Brattain, invented transistors • 1960 – present, developed enormous computing power & applied everywhere

  8. Great science often happens when A disruptive technology enables new explorations previously unimaginable Paradigms for Great Science 8

  9. The Case for Quantum Computing

  10. A disruptive computing technology: -- Computes f(n) by: Grow a crystal C depending on f, n Shine a quantum wave on C Observe the diffraction pattern & figure out f(n) -- Software simulates Hardware exponentially more efficient The Case for Quantum Computing 10

  11. black box F Example : Simon’s Problem Simon’s Problem: x: 001011F(x): 100110 • 2 to 1 mapping: There exists a secrets such that F(x+s) = F(x) • Problem: Determine s • Note: classical algorithms must make exponentiallymany queries F(x) = ?

  12. bright spots dark spots light source x screen wall

  13. z light source amp= x screen wall y

  14. z x + s light source amp= x screen wall y

  15. z x + s light source amp= x screen wall y

  16. Example : Simon’s Problem • Light patternson the wall determiness • Quantum computing: --don’t need 2N holes on screen or 2NX 2N dots on the wall --can be implemented with N X 2N bits --each bright spot location 1 bit of information on s

  17. Example : Simon’s Problem An important result: Shor developed an efficient quantum algorithm for factoring large integers. His method uses an approach similar to Simon’s algorithm. N = p* q secret

  18. Sooner Than You Think 18

  19. Major Quantum Information Centers • US NIST/U. Maryland– Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), with 29 professors including 1997Nobel Laureate W.D. Phillips,supported by NIST,NSF,DOD. • Harvard/MIT- Center for UltraCold Atoms (CUA),with 15 professors including 2001 Nobel Laureate W. Ketterle,supported by NSF,DOD. • Caltech/Microsoft Q-station,with 17 professors including Fields Medalist M. Freedman,supported by NSF, DOD, and Microsoft. • In Canada, Perimeter Institute/Waterloo - Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC),started with 100 million US dollars • In Singapore, National U of Singapore – Center for Quantum Technologies (CQT), 5 years 100 million US dollars • Centers in Europe, Japan, China,... 19

  20. Quantum Network Project at Tsinghua • Internet is an indispensible part of modern society: Is a quantum network a remote goal? 20

  21. Motivation • Quantum network is needed for practical realization of both quantum communication and computation • For Quantum Communication: Sending single-photon pulses Distance limited by channel attention length! ~ 15km • Quantum repeater network: Increase communication distance

  22. Motivation Quantum network is needed for practical realization of both quantum communication and computation David Wineland For Quantum Computation: Expandable quantum computational network: To increase computational size and complexity

  23. Vision for Quantum Network/Computer 23

  24. Ion Trap Quantum Register & Computation Node rf dc dc rf 24

  25. s (Dm=1) p (Dm=0) pulsed excitation Quantization Axis V H | = ||V + ||H Experimental entanglement between 1 ion and 1 photon P3/2 S1/2 | | Blinov, Moehing, Duan, Monroe Nature 428, 153 (2004). 25

  26. Entanglement of remote ions: D. L. Moehring, P. Maunz, S. Olmschenk, K. C. Younge, D. N. Matsukevich, L.-M. Duan, and C. Monroe, Nature 449, 68 (2007). Entanglement fidelity: 87(2)% 26

  27. Conclusions 27

  28. Conclusions (1) Great science often happens when: • Scientific theories interact; scientific disciplines interact • New technology becomes available Quantum computing is in this happy situation! 28

  29. Conclusions (2) What is Great Science? • It must have deep impact • Quantum Simulation can help design new materials, test physics theories • It must uplift the human spirit • Learns the language of the atomic worlds and asks the atoms to dance elegantly for computation

  30. Thank You!