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The Anatomy of Cloud Computing

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  1. The Anatomy ofCloud Computing Chao-Tung Yang 楊朝棟 Department of Computer Science Tunghai University, Taichung, 40704, Taiwan R.O.C. ctyang@thu.edu.tw http://web.thu.edu.tw/ctyang/

  2. Outline • Infrastructure • Software • Services • Applications • Summary

  3. Cloud

  4. Why we use cloud computing?

  5. Why we use cloud computing? Case 1: Write a file Save Computer down, file is lost Files are always stored in cloud, never lost

  6. What is cloud and cloud computing? Cloud Demand resources or services over Internet scale and reliability of a data center.

  7. What is cloud and cloud computing? • Cloud computing is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a serve over the Internet. • Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure in the "cloud" that supports them.

  8. The architecture of cloud computing system

  9. Characteristics of cloud computing • Virtual. software, databases, Web servers, operating systems, storage and networking as virtual servers. • On demand. add and subtract processors, memory, network bandwidth, storage.

  10. Cloud computing and other computing techniques

  11. http://trac.nchc.org.tw/cloud/

  12. http://sourceforge.net/apps/trac/hadoop4win

  13. Outline • Infrastructure • Software • Services • Applications • Summary

  14. Infrastructure • Introduction to Cloud Computing • Virtualization and Cloud Computing • Infrastructure as a Service

  15. Introduction to Cloud Computing • Cloud Computing means • Outsourced • Pay-as-you-go • On-Demand • Somewhere in the internet • …etc.

  16. Introduction to Cloud Computing (cont.) • Cloud Computing in three levels • Application in the cloud • This is what almost everyone has already used in the form of Gmail , Yahoo mail, wordpress.com, etc. • Platform in the cloud • Developers write their application to a more or less open specification and then upload their code into the cloud where the app is run magically somewhere.

  17. Introduction to Cloud Computing (cont.) • Infrastructure in the cloud • Developers and system administrators obtain general compute, storage, queuing, and other resources and run their applications with the fewest limitations. • This is the post powerful type of cloud in that virtually any application and any configuration.

  18. Introduction to Cloud Computing (cont.) • Cloud Computing in five layers (1/3) • Client: A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery. Ex., PC, NB, mobile phones. • Application: Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support.

  19. Introduction to Cloud Computing (cont.) • Cloud Computing in five layers (2/3) • Platform: Platform as a Service (PaaS) deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. • Infrastructure: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) delivers computer infrastructure, typically a platform virtualization environment as a service.

  20. Introduction to Cloud Computing (cont.) • Cloud Computing in five layers (3/3) • Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings.

  21. Introduction to Cloud Computing (cont.) • Deployment models • Public cloud • Community cloud • Private cloud • Hybrid cloud

  22. Introduction to Cloud Computing (cont.) • Deployment models • Public cloud • whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via web applications/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis. • Community cloud • Hybrid cloud • Private cloud

  23. Introduction to Cloud Computing • Deployment models • Public cloud • Community cloud • may be established where several organizations have similar requirements and seek to share infrastructure so as to realize some of the benefits of cloud computing. • With the costs spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a single tenant) this option is more expensive but may offer a higher level of privacy, security and/or policy compliance. • Hybrid cloud • Private cloud

  24. Introduction to Cloud Computing (cont.) • Deployment models • Public cloud • Community cloud • Hybrid cloud • environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers • By integrating multiple cloud services users may be able to ease the transition to public cloud services • Private cloud

  25. Introduction to Cloud Computing (cont.) • Deployment models • Public cloud • Community cloud • Hybrid cloud • Private cloud • The concept of a Private Computer Utility was first described by Douglas Parkhill in his 1966 book "The Challenge of the Computer Utility". The idea was based upon direct comparison with other industries (e.g. the electricity industry) and the extensive use of hybrid supply models to balance and mitigate risks. • Private cloud and internal cloud have been described as neologisms, however the concepts itself pre-dates the term cloud by 40 years.

  26. Virtualization and Cloud Computing • Virtualization: The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources* • Cloud Computing: “The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”** * VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview ** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  27. Virtualization and Cloud Computing (cont.)

  28. The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  29. And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  30. The Traditional Server Concept • System Administrators often talk about serversas a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. • Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File/ftp server, etc. • If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  31. The Traditional Server Concept (cont.) • Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. • System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  32. The Traditional Server Concept (cont.) • Pros • Easy to conceptualize • Fairly easy to deploy • Easy to backup • Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup • Cons • Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware • Not very scalable • Difficult to replicate • Redundancy is difficult to implement • Vulnerable to hardware outages • In many cases, processor is under-utilized 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  33. The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  34. Close-up * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview Clustering Service Console Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) x86 Architecture Intercepts hardware requests 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  35. The Virtual Server Concept (cont.) • Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware • Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage. • A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  36. The Virtual Server Concept (cont.) • Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. • If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. • Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  37. The Virtual Server Concept (cont.) • Virtual servers can be scaled out easily. • Server templates can be created in a virtualenvironment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers • Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  38. Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer) The Virtual Server Concept (cont.) 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  39. Virtualization Status • Offerings from many companies • e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ... • Hardware support • Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors. • Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer • Virtualization is now a well-established technology 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud

  40. Infrastructure as a Service • Infrastructure is a way to deliver virtualization to your cloud computing solution • In a virtualized environment, applications run on a server and are displayed on the client. The server can be local or on the other side of the cloud.

  41. Outline • Infrastructure • Software • Services • Applications • Summary

  42. Software • Software as a service (SaaS) • Overview • Company Offerings • Google • Microsoft • IBM • Software plus service • Overview • Pros • Cons • Mobile Device Integration • Providers

  43. Software-Overview (1/4) • Cloud computing offering • increasing abstraction of the underlying hardware, • a related, but separate, set of decisions must be made concerning how the software and applications are deployed on cloud infrastructure. • Cloud software deployment realize • efficient resource allocation • re-use • management

  44. Software-Overview (2/4) • SaaS (Software as a Service) is • an application hosted on a remote server and accessed through the Internet.

  45. Software-Overview (3/4) • SaaS can be divided into • Line of business services • Customer-oriented services

  46. Software-Overview (4/4) • The advantages of SaaS • Saving more time for value and improved productivity • Lower software licensing costs. • Saving enormous costs about installed software • SaaScan be used to avoid the custom development cycles to get applications to the organization quickly. • SaaSvendors typically have very meticulous security audits.