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College Athletes And Hazing: Perceptions And Prevention Measures. Logan Potter, Sport Management 2012 Travis Olson, Sport Science 2012 Beth Miller, Sport Management 2013. Definition. Disagreement about definition

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college athletes and hazing perceptions and prevention measures

College Athletes And Hazing: Perceptions And Prevention Measures

Logan Potter, Sport Management 2012

Travis Olson, Sport Science 2012

Beth Miller, Sport Management 2013

definition
Definition
  • Disagreement about definition

Hazing is any activity expected of someone joining or participating in a group that humiliates, degrades, abuses, or endangers them regardless of a person’s willingness to participate (Minnesota State High School League)

what hazing involves
What Hazing Involves
  • Physical Brutality
  • Physical Activity
  • Consumption of anything that subjects to harm or affects mental or physical health
  • Threatening or intimidating with ostracism
  • Making an individual perform a task that violates a law, policy, or regulation
types of hazing
Types Of Hazing
  • Subtle hazing
    • Usually verbal or psychological
  • Harassment hazing
  • Violent hazing
subtle hazing
Subtle Hazing
  • Behaviors that emphasize power imbalance between new members and other members
  • Often taken for granted or accepted as harmless (MSHSL)
  • Examples
    • Deception
    • Deprivation of privileges
    • Ostracizing students
    • Duties that others don’t have to perform
harassment hazing
Harassment Hazing
  • Behaviors that cause emotional anguish or physical discomfort
  • Causes confusion, frustration, and stress for new members (MSHSL)
  • Examples
    • Verbal Abuse
    • Threats or implied threats
    • Sleep deprivation
    • Abductions or kidnapping
violent hazing
ViolentHazing
  • Behaviors that have potential to cause physical and/or emotional harm (MSHSL)
  • Examples
    • Forced to consume drugs or alcohol
    • Beating
    • Branding
    • Forced ingestion of vile substances
    • Expecting illegal activity
hazing warning signs
Hazing Warning Signs
  • Leaders of the group are aggressive and intimidating
  • Rumors about activities that are hazardous
  • You sense danger
  • You have been warned that the group has a reputation for being extreme
  • You have witnessed events that are dangerous or against your morals
  • You feel stuck (MSHSL)
where hazing i s prevalent
Where Hazing Is Prevalent
  • High School
    • Growing problem
  • College
where hazing o ccurs
Where Hazing Occurs
  • Athletics
    • Most common
  • Academics
  • Clubs
hazing largely o verlooked
Hazing Largely Overlooked
  • Issues of hazing are largely overlooked
  • Under studied until recent years
iowa hazing law
Iowa Hazing Law

A person commits an act of hazing when the person intentionally or recklessly engages in any act involving force activity which endangers the physical health or safety of a student for the purpose of initiation or admission to a group.

A person who commits an act of hazing is guilty of a simple misdemeanor or serious misdemeanor depending on the severity (StopHazing.org)

study
Study
  • Surveyed athletes from Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference schools
    • Loras College Cornell College
    • Coe College Simpson College
    • Luther College Central College
    • Wartburg College University Of Dubuque
    • Buena Vista University
  • Asked about their personal views on hazing
survey
Survey
  • Responses: 205
    • Male: 99
    • Female: 106
  • Range: 18-22 Years Old
  • Average Age: 19 Years Old
  • Mode: 18 Years Old
questions
Questions
  • Have you ever been involved in any act of hazing?
  • Do you feel comfortable standing up to hazing?
  • What would keep you from reporting hazing?
  • Do you feel that hazing is an appropriate act?
  • On a scale of 1-10, with 10 being the highest, how prevalent do you believe hazing is at your school?
  • Where do you feel hazing is most common?
    • Athletics
    • Academics
    • Extra Curricular Activities
    • Other
  • What style of hazing do you feel is most prevalent?
    • Physical
    • Psychological
    • Verbal
questions cont
Questions (Cont.)
  • What steps should be taken to prevent hazing?
    • Team/Group Punishment
    • Suspension or Expulsion
    • Parental or Authority Involvement
    • Other
  • Who would you be most likely to talk to about your hazing experience?
  • What is your definition of hazing?
  • Do you feel there is a difference between hazing from high school to college? Please briefly explain.
  • How do you think hazing affects others?
  • What do you think the main goal of a hazing act is?
people involved i n h azing
People Involved In Hazing
  • Have you ever been involved in any act of hazing?
standing up t o h azing
Standing Up To Hazing
  • Do you feel comfortable standing up to hazing?
reporting hazing
Reporting Hazing
  • What would keep you from reporting hazing?
is hazing a ppropriate
Is Hazing Appropriate
  • Do you feel that hazing is an appropriate act?
how prevalent is hazing
How Prevalent Is Hazing
  • On a scale of 1-10, with 10 being the highest, how prevalent do you believe hazing is at your school?
where hazing i s most c ommon
Where Hazing Is Most Common
  • Where do you feel hazing is most common?
which style of hazing is most common
Which Style Of Hazing Is Most Common
  • What style of hazing do you feel is most prevalent?
steps to prevent hazing
Steps To Prevent Hazing
  • What steps should be taken to prevent hazing?
who to t alk t o
Who To Talk To
  • Who would you be most likely to talk to about your hazing experience?
students view o n hazing
Students View On Hazing
  • “The unwanted, or misdirected treatment of an individual upon their entering a special group or clique for the purpose of assimilating them.”
  • “Forcing freshmen to do stuff they don’t to.”
  • “Using your power or seniority to tease, and embarrass others (usually younger players) to do things that are inappropriate.”
  • “Making someone else feel bad about themselves and continually giving them a hard time.”
  • “It's a way that the upperclassmen "show" the freshmen that they are the big people”
students view o n hazing c ont
Students View On Hazing (Cont.)
  • “being mean to freshman”
  • “initiating people into a group by making them do things they may or may not want to do, but feel like they have to”
  • “Members of a group forcing a new/existing member within the group to do things, often dangerous, that he/she doesn't want to.”
  • “When people are forced to do anything that they do not feel comfortable doing in a physical or emotional way. This includes extreme cases of peer pressure or feeling like you have to do something to be part of a certain group that you want to be part of. When "no" is not a option.”
difference between h igh s chool a nd college
Difference Between High School And College
    • “High school hazing is much more prevalent.”
    • “There is actually less hazing in college than high school.”
    • “Not as bad in high school as in college because high school has people from the same town…”
    • “Yes the hazing tends to go farther and last longer in college.”
    • “Yes college kids can get kids to do thing [because] “it’s college”.”
  • “I think it was worse in high school, people weren't as mature. I never saw anything, but heard stories.”
difference between h igh s chool a nd college cont
Difference Between High School And College (Cont.)
  • “Yes, high school hazing has a much harder impact on the student and the students see each other daily. College hazing doesn’t happen as much because students have more freedom and can get away.”
  • “I did more hazing as a senior in high school, than the seniors here at college do to me as a freshman”
  • “I think there is a difference because hazing will have a greater impact on a high school student's mind than college students.”
  • “Yes. In high school hazing was mean-spirited but in college it is fun and not harmful”
  • “I believe high school was worse than college because you are forced to spend more of your time with your classmates while in college, you have a choice of where you sit and who you hang out with. College students usually have a more mature mentality to decide right from wrong.”
how hazing a ffects o thers
How Hazing Affects Others
  • “It can embarrass some kids, it can also make kids feel like they’re more a part of the team.”
  • “I think that it can make some people laugh and also hurt others depending on their personality and how they are being hazed.”
  • “It may be detrimental to a student’s experience at college… it can be embarrassing, but could also cause issues for those who refuse to participate.”
  • “Ibelieve it degrades them and makes them not want to continue to participate in whatever they originally wanted to do, whether that be a sports team or a fraternity/sorority.”
how hazing a ffects o thers cont
How Hazing Affects Others (Cont.)
  • “I believe it affects the mental state of the person the most. From my own experience I know that my physiological state is directly affected by hazing.”
  • “I think it has lasting effects that can transfer into loss of self confidence, anger directed outwards or inwards, and the likely hood that those who were hazed will haze others when it is their turn, thereby perpetuating the cycle”
  • “It can get to peoples minds, and really affect them emotionally and physically and if they don't do what is asked, they might not do that activity or sport anymore”
  • “Hazing to an extent can be healthy when it has a tradition to it. It can act as an initiation for new members of a group, but when it is excessive it can cause emotional and physical harm to people”
goal of h azing
Goal Of Hazing
  • “Make a certain group or individual feel superior to the individuals experiencing the hazing.”
  • “To be funny and build a bond with your teammate/group member, also to make new members show that they are loyal.”
  • “To show a hierarchy among players or members of the group to younger participants.”
  • “To show that upperclassmen can do whatever they want to you.”
  • “For most people I think it's the idea of "tradition" or the mentality of "I went through it, so they should too.”
prevention strategies
Prevention Strategies
  • Increase awareness
  • Ways to deal with hazing acts
  • Comprehensive prevention
educate about h azing
Educate About Hazing
  • Eradicating hazing may not be possible
  • Important to remember that every individual can play a role in making changes
  • How to help others in hazing
    • Notice hazing is occurring
    • Interpret hazing as a problem
    • Recognize a responsibility to change it
    • Acquire the skills needed to take action
    • Take the action needed
common barriers t o r emove h azing
Common Barriers To Remove Hazing
  • Denial of a problem
  • Dismissing hazing as harmless
  • Silence
  • Fear
  • No support for victims
  • Cultural norms that accept hazing
best way t o e ducate a bout h azing
Best Way To Educate About Hazing
  • Publicize/establish hazing policies
  • Provide information on how to report hazing
  • Provide support for individuals hazed
  • Establish consequences
  • Develop incentives for implementing non-hazing activities
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Design hazing prevention to be broad and inclusive of all students
  • Make a serious commitment to educate
    • Educate community
    • Send a clear message that hazing is not tolerated
  • Broaden the range of groups targeted (age?)
  • Involve all students in prevention efforts
    • Introduce early
recommendations1
Recommendations
  • Design prevention efforts to be comprehensive
    • Not one-time presentations
    • Distribution of hazing policies
  • Focus on helping all students
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Hazing is a complex social problem
    • No easy answers
  • Every individual has an important role to play
  • Each individual action can make a difference
  • Need to continue to build awareness and build effective intervention and prevention strategies to eliminate hazing
sources
Sources

Minnesota State High School League. (2011). Hazing-The Painful Truth.

Allan, Elizabeth & Madden, Mary. (2008). Hazing in View: College Students at Risk.

StopHazing.org. (2010). Iowa Hazing Law.

slide41

Thank You

Logan Potter

logan.potter@loras.edu

Travis Olson

travis.olson@loras.edu

Beth Miller

elizabeth.miller@loras.edu

Dr. Matt Garrett

matthew.garrett@loras.edu