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## Statistics

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**Statistics**Descriptive Statistics – Numerical Measures**Contents**Measures of location Measures of variability Measures of distribution shape , relative location , and detecting outliers Exploratory data analysis Measures of association between two variables The weighted mean and working with grouped data**Contents**Measures of Distribution Shape, Relative Location, and Detecting Outliers Exploratory Data Analysis Measures of Association Between Two Variables The Weighted Mean and Working with Grouped Data**STATISTICSin PRACTICE**• Small Fry Design is a toy and accessory company that designs and imports products for infants. • Cash flow management is one of the most critical activities in the day-to- day operation of this company.**STATISTICSin PRACTICE**• A critical factor in cash flow management is the analysis and control of accounts receivable. By measuring the average age and dollar value of outstanding invoices. • The company set the following goals: the average age for outstanding invoices should not exceed 45 days, and the dollar value of invoices more than 60 days old should not exceed 5% of the dollar value of all accounts receivable.**Measures of Location**• If the measures are computed for data from a sample , they are called sample statistics. • If the measures are computed for data from a • population , they are called population parameters. • A sample statistic is referred to as the point estimator of the corresponding population parameter.**Mean**• The mean of a data set is the average of all the data values. • Population mean m. • Sample mean • The sample mean is the point estimator of the population mean m.**Sample Mean**• Example: Monthly Starting Salaries for a Sample of 12 Business School Graduates • Data**Sample Mean**• The mean monthly starting salary**Sample Mean**• Example: Apartment Rents Seventy efficiency apartments were randomly sampled in a small college town. The monthly rent prices for these apartments are listed in ascending order on the next slide.**Median**• The median of a data set is the value in the • middle when the data items are arranged in • ascending order. • Whenever a data set has extreme values, the • median is the preferred measure of central • location.**Median**• The median is the measure of location most often • reported for annual income and property value • data. • A few extremely large incomes or property values • can inflate the mean.**2755 2850 2880 2880 2890 2920 2940 2950 3050 3130**3325 • Middle Two Values Median • Example: Monthly Starting Salaries for a Sample of 12 Business School Graduates • We first arrange the data in ascending order. • Because n = 12 is even, we identify the middle two values: 2890 and 2920.**Median**• For an odd number of observations: 26 18 27 12 14 27 19 7 observations in ascending order 27 12 14 18 19 26 27 the median is the middle value. Median = 19**Median**• For an even number of observations: 8 observations 26 18 27 12 14 27 30 19 in ascending order 27 30 12 14 18 19 26 27 the median is the average of the middle two values. Median = (19 + 26)/2 = 22.5**Mode**• Example: frequency distribution of 50 Soft Drink Purchases • The mode, or most frequently purchased soft drink, is Coke Classic. Soft Drink Frequency Coke Classic 19 Diet Coke 8 Dr. Pepper 5 Pepsi-Cola 13 Sprite 5 Total 50**Mode**450 occurred most frequently (7 times) Mode = 450**Percentiles**• A percentile provides information about how the • data are spread over the interval from the smallest • value to the largest value. • Admission test scores for colleges and • universities are frequently reported in terms • of percentiles.**Percentiles**• The pth percentile of a data set is a value such that at least p percent of the items take on this value or less and at least (100 - p) percent of the items take on this value or more.**Percentiles**• Example: Monthly Starting Salaries for a sample of 12 Business School Graduates • Let us determine the 85th percentile for the starting salary data**Percentiles**• Step 1. Arrange the data in ascending order. 2710 2755 2850 2880 2880 2890 2920 2940 2950 3050 3130 3325 • Step 2. • Step 3. Because iis not an integer, round up. The position of the 85th percentile is the next integer greater than 10.2, the 11th position.**Percentiles**• Arrange the data in ascending order. • Compute index i, the position of the pth • percentile. • If i is not an integer, round up. The p th • percentile is the value in the ith position. • If i is an integer, the p th percentile is the average • of the values in positionsiand i+1. i = (p/100)n**90th Percentile**i = (p/100)n = (90/100)70 = 63 Averaging the 63rd and 64th data values: 90th Percentile = (580 + 590)/2 = 585**90th Percentile**“At least 90% of the items take on a value of 585 or less.” “At least 10% of the items take on a value of 585 or more.” 63/70 = .9 or 90% 7/70 = .1 or 10%**Quartiles**• Quartiles are specific percentiles. • First Quartile = 25th Percentile • Second Quartile = 50th Percentile = Median • Third Quartile = 75th Percentile**Third Quartile**Third quartile = 75th percentile i= (p/100)n = (75/100)70 = 52.5 = 53 Third quartile = 525**Measures of Variability**• It is often desirable to consider measures of • variability (dispersion), as well as measures • of location. • For example, in choosing supplier A or supplier • B we might consider not only the average • delivery time for each, but also the variability • in delivery time for each.**Measures of Variability**• Range • InterquartileRange • Variance • Standard Deviation • Coefficient of Variation**Range**• The range of a data set is the difference between • the largest and smallest data values. • It is the simplest measure of variability. • It is very sensitive to the smallest and largest • data values.**Range**Range = largest value - smallest value Range = 615 - 425 = 190**Interquartile Range**• The interquartile range of a data set is the • differencebetween the third quartile and the • first quartile. • It is the range for the middle 50% of the data. • It overcomes the sensitivity to extreme data • values.**Interquartile Range**3rd Quartile (Q3) = 525 1st Quartile (Q1) = 445 Interquartile Range = Q3 - Q1 = 525 - 445 = 80**It is based on the difference between the value of**each observation (xi) and the mean ( for a sample, μ for a population). Variance The variance is a measure of variability that utilizes all the data.**Variance**The variance is the average of the squared differences between each data value and the mean. The variance is computed as follows: for a sample for a population**Standard Deviation**• The standard deviation of a data set is the • positivesquare root of the variance. • It is measured in the same units as the data, • makingit more easily interpreted than the • variance.**Standard Deviation**The standard deviation is computed as follows: for a population for a sample**Coefficient of Variation**The coefficient of variation indicates how large the standard deviation is in relation to the mean. The coefficient of variation is computed as follows: for a population for a sample**Variance, Standard Deviation,**And Coefficient of Variation • Variance • Standard Deviation**Variance, Standard Deviation,**And Coefficient of Variation • Coefficient of Variation the standard deviation is about 11% of of the mean .**Measures of Distribution Shape,Relative Location, and**Detecting Outliers • Distribution Shape • z-Scores • Chebyshev’s Theorem • Empirical Rule • Detecting Outliers**Distribution Shape: Skewness**• An important measure of the shape of a distribution is called skewness. • The formula for computing skewness for a data set is somewhat complex. • Note: The formula for the skewnessof sample data**Distribution Shape: Skewness**• Skewness can be easily computed using statistical software.**Distribution Shape: Skewness**• Symmetric (not skewed) • Skewnessis zero. • Mean and median are equal.**.35**.30 .25 .20 .15 .10 .05 0 Distribution Shape: Skewness Skewness = 0 Relative Frequency**Distribution Shape: Skewness**• Moderately Skewed Left • Skewnessis negative. • Mean will usually be less than the median.