grammar notebook part four pronouns n.
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Grammar notebook part four pronouns. Pronouns. Lovely little words that take the place of nouns Pronoun agreement: gender and number come from antecedent(replaced noun) but case comes from use in clause Types of Pronouns

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pronouns
Pronouns
  • Lovely little words that take the place of nouns
  • Pronoun agreement: gender and number come from antecedent(replaced noun) but case comes from use in clause
  • Types of Pronouns
    • Personal pronouns : 1st, 2nd, 3rd. ( I, we, me, us, you, he, she, it, they)
slide3

Demonstrative Pronouns: points out which one

    • This, that, these, those
    • Can also be used as personal pronouns
  • Relative pronouns: introduce relative clauses and give more information about the antecedent
    • Who, which, whom, whose, what
  • Interrogative Pronouns: introduce questions
    • Who, what, which, whose, whom
  • Reflexive: refer to the subject
    • Himself, herself, itself, themselves, myself, yourself
slide4

Possession: special adjectives to show possession (meus, noster, tuus, vester, suus)

  • Intensive pronoun: provides emphasis for a noun
    • -self
  • Indefinite pronoun: vague antecedent; points which one but not specifically
personal pronouns
Personal Pronouns
  • FIRST PERSON I, ME WE, US
  • NOM EGO NOS
  • GEN MEI** NOSTRUM**
  • DAT MIHI NOBIS
  • ACC ME NOS
  • ABL*** ME NOBIS
  • **TO SHOW POSSESSION, USE THE ADJECTIVES MEUS, MEA,MEUM OR NOSTER, NOSTRA, NOSTRUM
  • ***mecum, nobiscum = with me/ with us
slide6

2ND PERSON YOU YOU, Y’ALL

  • NOM TU VOS
  • GEN TUI** VESTRUM**
  • DAT TIBI VOBIS
  • ACC TE VOS
  • ABL *** TE VOBIS
  • **TO SHOW POSSESSION, USE THE ADJECTIVES TUUS, TUA, TUUM OR VESTER, VESTRA, VESTRUM
  • ***TECUM , VOBISCUM = WITH YOU
slide7

3rd person singular

      • Masc fem neuter
    • IS EA ID
    • EIUS EIUS EIUS
    • EI EI EI
    • EUM EAM ID
    • EO* EA* EO
slide8

3RD PERSON PLURAL

      • MASC FEM NEUTER
    • EI EAE EA
    • EORUM EARUM EORUM
    • EIS EIS EIS
    • EOS EAS EA
    • EIS EIS EIS
demonstrative pronouns this these
Demonstrative Pronouns: this, these
  • Points out which one
  • Can be used as pronoun or adjective
  • Singular
    • Mascu fem neuter
    • Hic haec hoc
    • Huiushuiushuius
    • Huichuichuic
    • Hunchanc hoc
    • Hoc* hac* hoc*
slide10

Plural

    • Masc fem neuter
    • Hi haehaec
    • Horumharumhorum
    • His his his
    • Hos has haec
    • His his his
demonstrative pronoun that those
Demonstrative Pronoun: that, those
  • Also points out which one but further away than this, these
  • Singular
    • Masc fem neut
    • illeillaillud
    • illiusilliusillius
    • illiilliilli
    • Illumillamillud
    • illo* illa* illo*
slide12

Plural

    • Masc fem neut
    • illiillaeilla
    • illorumillarumillorum
    • illisillisillis
    • illosillasilla
    • illisillisillis
demonstrative pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns
  • The pronoun “is, ea, id “ found on page _____ can also be used as a demonstrative pronoun.
    • It can be used to mean “this, that, those, these”
  • All demonstrative pronouns can also be used as third person (he, she, it, they, him, her, them) personal pronouns as long as they are not reflexive to the subject.
    • For reflexive pronouns for third person see page ______
emphatic demonstrative
Emphatic Demonstrative
  • Translates as “the same”
  • Singular
    • Idem eadem idem
    • Eiusdemeiusdemeiusdem
    • Eidemeidemeidem
    • Eundemeandem idem
    • Eodemeādemeodem
slide15

Plural

    • Eidemeaedemeadem
    • Eorundemearundemeorundem
    • Eisdemeisdemeisdem
    • Eosdemeasdemeadem
    • Eisdemeisdemeisdem
relative pronouns
Relative Pronouns
  • Function: introduces a relative clause
    • Gives more information about the antecedent
    • Relates back to the antecedent
      • I know that boy who was running down the street.
      • Scio illumpuerum qui currebat de via.
  • Basic translations: who, which, what, whose, whom
slide17

Agreement: must agree with the antecedent in gender and number but gets its case from the use in the relative clause

    • I know the boy who was running down the street.
    • Who refers to boy
      • Therefore it will be masculine and singular
      • It is the subject of its clause
        • Therefore it will be nominative
relative singular
Relative Singular
  • Singular
    • Masculine feminine neuter
    • QUI QUAE QUOD
    • CUIUS CUIUS CUIUS
    • CUI CUI CUI
    • QUEM QUAM QUOD
    • QUO* QUA* QUO*
relative plural
Relative Plural
  • Plural
  • Masculine feminine neuter
  • QUI QUAE QUAE
  • QUORUM QUARUM QUORUM
  • QUIBUS QUIBUS QUIBUS
  • QUOS QUAS QUAE
  • QUIBUS QUIBUS QUIBUS
interrogative pronouns
Interrogative Pronouns
  • Introduce a question
  • Follow the rules of agreement
  • Singular
    • Masc fem neuter
    • Quisquis quid
    • Cuiuscuiuscuius
    • Cui cui cui
    • Quem quam quid
    • Quōquāquō
slide21

Plural

  • Masc fem neuter
  • Qui quae quae
  • Quorum quarum quorum
  • Quibusquibusquibus
  • Quos quas quae
  • Quibusquibusquibus
slide22

Examples

    • Quisestu?
    • Who are you?
    • Quid facis?
    • What are you doing?
third person reflexive pronoun
Third Person Reflexive Pronoun
  • Forms
    • Nominative None
    • Genitive **sui
    • Dative sibi
    • Accusative se or sese
    • Ablative se or sese
    • Vocative none
    • **use the possessive adjective suus, sua, suum declined in the first and second declension to show possession.
usage of reflexive pronouns
Usage of Reflexive Pronouns
  • Must reflect the subject
  • Usually translated by adding “-self”
  • Must be essential to the sentence; removing the pronoun would change the meaning.
    • Interfecit se. He killed himself. ( “Himself” is essential and reflexive)
    • Interfecitmilitem ipse. He killed the soldier himself. (“Himself” only add emphasis and can be omitted without changing the meaning of the sentence)
personal possession
Personal Possession
  • To show possession with 1st person, 2nd person, and 3rd person reflexive
    • Use possessive adjectives which agree in gender, number, and case with the modified noun.
    • I lost my book. Meumlibrum
    • I lost your book tuumlibrum
    • I lost our book nostrum librum
    • I lost your (pl) book. Vestrumlibrum
      • In spite of the fact that I am feminine, I use the masculine to agree with the book which is masculine.
non reflexive possession
Non-reflexive possession
  • Use the genitive to show non-reflexive possession( meaning doesn’t belong to the subject)
    • Mychal non amatsuumcanem. ( The dog belongs to Mychal)
    • Mychal non amateiuscanem (the dog belongs to someone else)
intensive pronouns
Intensive Pronouns
  • Only provide emphasis; can be removed without changing the meaning
  • Translate with –self
  • Singular
  • Masc fem neut
  • Ipse ipsaipsum
  • Ipsiusipsiusipsius
  • Ipsiipsiipsi
  • Ipsumipsamipsum
  • Ipso ipsā ipso
slide28

Plural

  • Ipsiipsaeipsa
  • Ipsorumipsarumipsorum
  • Ipsisipsisipsis
  • Ipsosipsasipsa
  • Ipsisipsisipsis
indefinite pronouns
Indefinite Pronouns
  • Definition: some, certain
  • Forms
    • Quidamquaedamquoddam
    • Cuiusdamcuiusdamcuiusdam
    • Cuidamcuidamcuidam
    • Quendamquandamquoddam
    • Quodamquādamquodam
slide30

Quidamquaedamquaedam

  • Quorundamquarundamquorundam
  • Quibusdamquibusdamquibusdam
  • Quosdamquasdamquaedam
  • Quibusdamquibusdamquibusdam
those awful q words
Those Awful “q” words
  • 1. It’s perfectly okay to hate them.
  • 2. “Qui Quae Quod” are relative pronouns
      • Will give more information about a noun or pronoun
      • Will be in a sentence with at least two verbs
      • Marcus estpuer qui amatFerocem.
  • 3. Interrogative Pronouns “Quis, Quid”
      • Usually asks a direct questions although sometimes asking an indirect question ( will have subjunctive verb)
      • Quid facitillumstrepitum? What is that noise?
      • Rogaviquisfaceretillumstrepitum. I asked who was making that noise.
slide32

4. Quod

    • If there’s a neuter noun, it might be a pronoun meaning “which”
      • Faciemusiter quod crasincipiet.
      • We will make a journey which will begin tomorrow.
    • If there is no neuter noun, probably a conjunction meaning “because”
      • Discessimus quod non amavimusillamcenam.
      • We left because we didn’t like that food
slide33

5. Quam

    • If only one verb, probably not a pronoun. It needs something feminine to refer to.
    • If used with an adverb, it means “how”
      • Quam celeritercurrit!
    • With a comparative it means “than”
      • Sextusestmolestior quam Marcus
    • With a superlative it means “as possible”
      • Sextuscurrit quam celerrime.