Chapter 26 Section 1 Origins of the Cold War
Objectives • Students will be able to… • Describe the post war goals of the U.S. and the Soviets • Analyze the effects of the Iron Curtain and the Truman Doctrine
Questions of the Day • What do you think a “Cold War” is? • Why was this war considered a “cold” war and not “hot”? What made it a war?
1945 • What was the relationship between the U.S. and the Soviet Union like at the end of WWII? • What were their areas of agreement? • What were their areas of disagreement?
Yalta Conference • Division of Germany • American, British, French, Soviet • Reparations to Soviets denied - $20 billion – Why? • Japan • Support/islands • Poland – gateway, promises, communism
United Nations • League of Nations failed • 50 Nations gathered • Peace, justice, cooperation…stop wars • 11 Council seats that can veto • U.S, Britain, France, China, Soviets - permanent
Harry S. Truman • Roosevelt dies with all of his ideas • Truman was left in the dark
Potsdam Conference • Similar to Yalta, but new leaders • Attlee and Truman • Similar disagreements • Japan, $, Germany • Truman shared his new weapon • Soviets were already aware
Goals • American • Wanted democracy and economic opportunity for conquered nations • Helps with trade & politics • Soviet • Lost 20 million people and destruction • Wanted Satellite Nations • Communist countries
Soviets take hold • Poland – no elections for 2 years • Albania & Bulgaria – silenced all ant-communists • Czechoslovakia – democratic, but 2 years later communist • Hungary & Romania – same as above • Common thread – took over police and silenced anti-communist leaders • Video
Iron Curtain • Cominform - spread the ideas all over the world without military action • Stalin v. Churchill (speeches) • Political, economic, and military tensions.
Containment • Keep communism from spreading! “bears within it the seeds of its own decay” What does this mean?
Truman Doctrine • “Nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority…The second way of life is based upon the will of the minority forcibly imposed upon the majority…I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation [conquest] by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way” • Truman Doctrine, March 12, 1947
Truman Doctrine • $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey
Assignment • Respond in writing: • Do you believe that Germany and other countries in Europe had a fighting chance with democracy? Explain.