Origins of the Cold War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Origins of the Cold War

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  1. Origins of the Cold War 18.1 Notes

  2. Soviet Union communist State controls all property, economic activity Totalitarian gov’t Communist Party only Joseph Stalin ally of Hitler Angry about delayed attack on Germans Unites States Capitalist Private citizens control economic activity Democratic gov’t voting Elected president and congress Harry S. Truman Tried to keep atomic bomb secret Former Allies Clash

  3. United Nations • High hopes for peace at post WWII • April 25, 1945 • 50 nations met in SF to establish U.N. • 2 months of debate • June 26, 1945 • UN charter signed • Intentions were to keep peace • Soviet Union and U.S. used it as forum to spread influence

  4. Truman Becomes President • Sworn in April 12, 1945 • Only VP for a few months • Previously not included in top policy decisions • Didn’t even know about bomb • Many doubted readiness for presidency • Honest, willing to make tough decisions

  5. Potsdam Conference • July, 1945 • Final wartime conference near Berlin • New Big Three • Truman, Stalin, Clement Atlee • Stalin refused free elections in Poland • Truman demands aimed to spread democracy to nations under Nazi rule • Promote self-determination around the world

  6. Stalin wanted reparations • Truman objected • settled on reparations from own occupation zones • Truman wants democracy and free trade around the world • U.S. industry boomed during war • Access to raw materials in E. Europe • Ability to sell goods to E. European countries

  7. Soviets Tighten Their Grip • Emerged from WII as economic, military strength • But… • Lost 20 million people (1/2 civilians) • Suffered devastation on own soil • Felt justified in claim over Eastern Europe • Albania, Bulgaria, Czech., Hungary, Romania, Poland • Satellite nations – dominated by Soviet Union • Attempt to stop future invasions from west

  8. “communism and capitalism are incompatible – another war is inevitable” - Joseph Stalin

  9. Policy of Containment • Time to stop “babying the Soviets” • George F. Kennan (diplomat in Moscow) • Proposed policy of containment • Taking measures to prevent extension of communist rule to other countries • Guided Truman’s presidency • Europe divided • Western Europe • mostly democratic • Eastern Europe • mostly communist

  10. Iron Curtain Speech “A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victory…From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe…All these famous cities and the populations around them line…the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and…increasing measure of control from Moscow.” - Winston Churchill, March 1946