Social movements and participation What are social movements? What causes social movements? What causes social movements to be successful? Who participates in politics? Why? Collective action problem…
Causes of political participation Economic • Rational? • Minimax regret theory • High costs of voting disproportionate on lower income • Civic duty (the D term) Benefits – cost + Duty
Causes of political participation Sociological • Gender, race, class, education (Gender?) • Socialization (coming of age in political time – New Deal generation) • Group consciousness • Other organization (even non-political associations like bowling, quilting, religious organizations)
Causes of political participation Psychological • Partisanship (running tally) • Internal efficacy • External efficacy • Political trust – cynicism
Causes of political participation Institutional or contextual • State culture • Party competition • Increased mobilization • Ideological placement of candidates and effect on mobilization • Moter voter
Causes of political participation in the case of Beslan • Political alienation • Social alienation = violence • Resources • Grievance – contextual variable • Past participation • Anger!